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Tentative Checklist of the Polistine Tribe Epiponini

by

James M. Carpenter (American Museum of Natural History, New York)

 

Tribe Epiponini Lucas, 1867

 

 

Genus Agelaia Lepeletier

 

Agelaia Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 535, genus.

Type species: Agelaia fuscicornis Lepeletier, 1836 [= Polistes testacea Fabricius, 1804], by monotypy.

Aglaia Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 75.  Incorrect spelling of Agelaia Lepeletier.

Stelopolybia Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517, genus (13 species).

Type species: Polistes angulata Fabricius, 1804, by subsequent designation of Lucas, 1912, Arch. Naturgesch. 77, Bd. 4 (1): 210.

Gymnopolybia Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 317, 327, genus (10 species).

Type species: Polybia vulgaris Ducke, 1904 [= Vespa fulvofasciata DeGeer, 1773], by subsequent designation of Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B) 12: 45.

 

acreana Silveira and Carpenter

Agelaia acreana Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 69, fig. 1, female - gBrazil: Acre, Rio Brancoh (Belém). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190 (French Guiana; Ecuador).

Distr.: French Guiana; Brazil: Acre; Ecuador: Napo, Sucumbios.

 

angulata (Fabricius)

Polistes angulata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 275 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn).

Polybia angulata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 185 (in division Phi). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 192. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil), fig. b. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 15 (Panama; Ecuador).

Stelopolybia angulata; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 520 (angulata s. str.; syns.: P. angulicollis Spinola, P. ornata Ducke; female; Mexico; Brazil; Paraguay). - Lucas, 1912, Arch. Naturgesch. 77, Bd. 4 (1): 210 (designation as type species of Stelopolybia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 296. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference)

Megacanthopus ruficornis Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 216 (key), 217, female- locality not stated [Guyana] (London).

Mischocyttarus ruficornis; Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 215.

Stelopolybia angulata angulata; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 253 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 244. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Stelopolybia angulata bertonii Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 244, female - gPARAGUAY: Pto Bertonih (London); also from Brazil; Argentina; Bolivia. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 44 (note on type material; Brazil: Paraná). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 192 (bertoni [!]; syn. of angulata (Fabricius)).

Agelaia angulata; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 191 (nest; syn: bertoni [!] Richards; probably not from west of Andes).

Agelaia angulata angulata; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list).

Agelaia bertonii; Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 39 (key, fig. 1b), 40 (Paraguay).

Distr.: Mexico; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Barinas, Delta Amacuro, Mérida; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando; Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Canindeyú; Argentina: Misiones.

 

angulicollis (Spinola)

Polistes angulicollis Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 61, female - [Brazil:] gParah (Torino).

Polybia angulicollis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 184, pl. XXIII fig. 3 (in division Phi). - du Buysson and Marshall, 1892, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 61: 59 (Venezuela). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (angulicallis [!]; Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 18 (compared to P. festae n. sp.).

Stelopolybia angulata var. angulicollis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 520 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296.

Stelopolybia angulicollis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 246.

Agelaia angulicollis; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 191, fig. 7 (nest; Ecuador).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Huila, Meta, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará.

 

areata (Say)

Polistes areata Say, 1837, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 388 - gMexicoh (type lost).

Polybia areata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 210, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (? Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus).

Polybia fasciata; Ducke, 1908, Dts. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 697.  Misidentification.

Stelopolybia sulfureofasciata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 522, female - gBelizeh (lectotype Belém); also from Mexico; Guatemala; Nicaragua; Colombia; Venezuela; Ecuador [name for Polybia fasciata sensu Ducke, 1908]. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (syn of areata (Say)). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 7 (designation of lectotype), 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 5 (notes on types; syn. confirmed).

Stelopolybia areata; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (syn.: S. sulfureofasciata Ducke; Venezuela localities). - Jeanne, 1973, Biotropica 5: 183-196 (ethology; Mexico). - Jeanne and Fagen, 1974, Psyche 81: 155-166 (caste polymorphism). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 256, fig. 101. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia areata; Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 190 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585, fig. 15.36 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology), 136 (morphology). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - OfDonnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 510 (Costa Rica). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 192, figs. 5-6, 21-22 (Venezuela).

Distr.: Mexico: Guerrero, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Cauca, Chocó, Huila, Magdalena, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Mérida; Ecuador: El Oro, Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha, Tungurahua.

 

baezae (Richards)

Gymnopolybia cornelliana var. baezae Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (B) 12: 47 (key), 49, female - gEAST ECUADOR: Baezah (London).

Stelopolybia baezae; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 242, fig. 99.

Agelaia baezae; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 193, fig. 19 (possible syn. of cornelliana (Richards); nest; Ecuador).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Cauca, Huila, Putumayo; Ecuador: Loja, Napo, Pastaza, Tungurahua.

 

brevistigma (Richards)

Stelopolybia brevistigma Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 241, fig. 97, female - gECUADOR: Napo, Limoncocha, 0024'S, 7636'Wh (London); also from Colombia.

Agelaia brevistigma; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Fowler, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42: 387 (distr.). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 71. - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190 (note on holotype).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Ecuador: Napo.

 

cajennensis (Fabricius)

Vespa cajennensis Fabricius, 1798, Suppl. Entomol. Syst.: 265 - [French Guiana] gCajennaeh (lectotype female Paris). - Coquebert, 1801, Illus. Icon. Ins.: 62, pl. XV fig. 3A-B. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (designation of lectotype).

Polistes cajennensis; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 280.

? Polybia phthisica; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 186, pl. XXIII figs. 7-8 (in division Phi) [partim]. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 211 (Guyana).  Misidentification.

Polybia lignicola Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 349 (key), 355, female - [Brazil:] gBelém do Pará na matta; Rio da Villanova (Anauerapucú)h (Belém, Zürich); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 524 (syn. of cayennensis [!]). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (note on syntype in Belém). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 3 (notes on types; syn. confirmed).

Stelopolybia cayennensis [!]; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 518 (key), 524 (syn.: P. lignicola Ducke; female, male, nest; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294 (cajennensis). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 168, 169 (cajennensis). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (cajennensis; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 240, fig. 96 (cajennensis). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (cajennensis; list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (cajennensis; nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (cajennensis; habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (cajennensis; coll. list).

Stelopolybia cajennensis var. obscura Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11.  Nomen nudum.

Agelaia cajennensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 71. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190 (male compared to timida n. sp.; Colombia).

Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco; Belize; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, I. Gorgona, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Pará, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando.

 

centralis (Cameron)

Polybia pallipes; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim].

Polybia pallipes var. centralis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184, male [female] - gBelizeh (London). - Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 74 (gprobably typeh listed as Stelopolybia pallipes var. myrmecophila).

Stelopolybia vulgaris var. mexicana Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 524 - gMexique (Oaxaca, Bas Mixtèque)h (Paris, Budapest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 257 (designation of lectotype, female, Paris; syn. of S. myrmecophila (Ducke)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types; Richardsf lectotype designation not valid; syn. of A. centralis).

Stelopolybia pallipes var. (or subsp.) fulvanceps Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297, female - gCOLOMBIA: Rio Frio, Dept. Magdalenah (Cambridge); also from Peru.

Stelopolybia pallipes var. bequaerti Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 74, female, male - [Guyana] gMarazuni Stationh (holotype female London); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 254 (syn. of S. multipicta multipicta).

Stelopolybia pallipes bequaerti; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 253 (Brazil).

Stelopolybia multipicta fulvanceps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 255.

Stelopolybia myrmecophila; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 256 [partim; misidentification]. - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 514, fig. 3.3 (Mexico). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (myrmecophila sensu Richards partly misidentified).

Agelaia myrmecophila; Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 190 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).  Misidentification.

Agelaia multipicta fulvanceps; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list).

Agelaia bequaerti; Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic), 40 (key, figs. 4aa-bb, 4cc), 41 (Paraguay).

Agelaia centralis; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 3, 4 (syns.: vulgaris var. mexicana Ducke, multipicta fulvanceps Bequaert). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 195, figs. 23-24, 33-34 (syn.: bequaerti Richards; Colombia).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Veracruz; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Arauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.; Guyana*; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción.

 

constructor (de Saussure)

Polybia constructor de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 191, pl. XXIII fig. 6, female (in division My) - gL'Amérique méridionale. Cayenneh (Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

Polybia constructrix de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 256 [unnecessary emendation]. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 233.

Stelopolybia constructrix; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 521 (French Guiana; Brazil).- Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 295. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169.

Stelopolybia constructor; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 243. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia constructor; Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72.

Distr.: Guyana; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará.

 

cornelliana cornelliana (Richards)

Gymnopolybia cornelliana Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (B) 12: 47 (key), 48, figs. 3, 9-10, female - gPERU: Rio Tarna, Huacapistanah (Ithaca).

Stelopolybia corneliana [!]; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169.

Stelopolybia cornelliana cornelliana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 242.

Agelaia cornelliana; Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 193, fig. 17 (baezae Richards a possible synonym).

Distr.: Peru: Junín; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

cornelliana subterranea (Richards)

Gymnopolybia gcornelliana nov. var. subterranea Bequaerth Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 74.  Nomen nudum.

Stelopolybia cornelliana subterranea Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 242, female - gPERU: Cuzco, Machu Picchu, 2000 mh (London).

Distr.: Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Pasco; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

flavipennis (Ducke)

Polybia flavipennis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 20, female - [Brazil:] gTeffé, État de Amazonash (lectotype Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 253 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list).

Stelopolybia meridionalis var. flavipennis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 523 (Brazil).

Gymnopolybia meridionalis flavipennis; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 344. - Araujo, 1940, Arq. Inst. Biol., São Paulo 2: 14.

Stelopolybia flavipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 253. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia flavipennis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 3 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 192, figs. 14-15, 20, 25-26 (Bolivia; record from Panama dubious).

Distr.: Panama (?); Colombia: Vaupés; Venezuela; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia.

 

fulvofasciata (DeGeer)

Vespa fulvofasciata DeGeer, 1773, Mem. Hist. Ins. 3: 581, pl. 29 fig. 8 - gSurinamh (Stockholm). - Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 364 (fulvo-fasciata). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Polybia, Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus).

Vespa fasciata Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 676 - gSurinamh (type lost). - Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 364.

? Vespa ochrosticta Lichtenstein, 1796, Cat. Mus. Zool. Dit. Hamburgi ... Sect. Tertia Ins.: 203 - gAmericah (type depository unknown). - Weber, 1801, Observ. Entomol.: 103. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus).  Non Vespa ochrosticta Lichtenstein, 1796: 201.  Unavailable; suppressed under the plenary powers of the ICZN (1995, Opinion 1820).

Polistes hectica Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 278 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus).

Polistes fulvo fasciata; Latreille, 1809, Gen. Crust. Ins. 4: 142.

Polistes fasciata; Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172.

? Polybia phthisica; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 186, pl. XXIII figs. 7-8 (in division Phi) [partim].  Misidentification.

Polybia fulvofasciata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (syn.: V. fasciata Olivier, V. phthisica Fabricius, V. cayennensis [!] Fabricius, V. ochrosticta gWeber,h hectica Fabricius; cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 14, 15 (Ecuador).

Polybia fasciata; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 211.

Polybia vulgaris Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 352, female, male - [Brazil:] gBelém do Paráh (lectotype female Paris); also from other localities in Pará, and Amapá. - Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B) 12: 45 (designation as type species of Gymnopolybia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296 (syn. of fulvofasciata (DeGeer)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 250 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 5 (notes on types).

Stelopolybia vulgaris; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 523 (female, male, nest; Brazil; Peru). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).

Stelopolybia fulvo-fasciata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 296 (syn.: vulgaris Ducke). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 135 (fulvofasciata; Venezuela: Monagas). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 253 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 250 (fulvofasciata). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 105 (fulvofasciata; nest site), 106 (role in agriculture); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (fulvofasciata; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (fulvofasciata; habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (fulvofasciata; coll. list). - Raw, 1996, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (Sér. Zool.) 12 (1): 7 (fulvofasciata; resemblance of Mischocyttarus mamirauae in coloration).

Agelaia fulvofasciata; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159, fig. 14 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 181 (key), 194, figs. 29-30.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Meta, Putumayo; Venezuela: Monagas; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando; Paraguay.

 

hamiltoni (Richards)

Stelopolybia hamiltoni Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 251, female - gBRAZIL: Acre, Cruzeiro do Sulh (Rio de Janeiro); also from Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia; and Peru; Ecuador; Venezuela; Colombia.

Agelaia hamiltoni; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 133-134 (ethology). - Jeanne et al., 1995, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 68 (3): 279-289 (foraging; Peru). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 181 (key), 194, figs. 31-32 (Peru).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Venzuela: Amazonas; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia.

 

imitatrix Cooper

Agelaia imitatrix Cooper, 2001, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 137: 233, 234 (key), figs. 1-2, female, male - gBOLIVIA: La Paz, Coroico 2,250mh (holotype female London).

Distr.: Bolivia: La Paz.

 

lobipleura lobipleura (Richards)

Stelopolybia lobipleura lobipleura Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 247, fig. 103, female - gPERU: Junín, Valle Chanchamayo, 800 mh (London); also from Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; and Bolivia; Brazil; Ecuador.

Agelaia lobipleura lobipleura; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Valle; list).

Agelaia lobipleura; Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 71. - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 189, fig. 9 (? male, Bolivia).

Distr.: Colombia: Valle (?); Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz (?).

 

lobipleura melanogaster (Richards)

Stelopolybia lobipleura melanogaster Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 248, female - gPERU: Loreto, Previsto, 850 mh (London).

Distr.: Peru: Loreto.

 

melanopyga Cooper

Polybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 521 [partim: record from Costa Rica].

Gymnopolybia pallidipes; Rau, 1933, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Col. Is.: 88-94, figs. 43-45 (nest).

Stelopolybia areata gdark formh; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 256 (El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Ecuador).

Agelaia melanopyga Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 188, fig. 13, female, male - gCOLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoash (holotype female London); also from Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó, Putumayo; Ecuador; Panama; Costa Rica.

Distr.: El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó, Nariño, Putumayo; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo.

 

multipicta (Haliday)

Polistes multipictus Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 322, female - [Brazil:] gSt. Paulsh (London).

Polybia multipicta; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 188 (in division Phi). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? Polybia or Stelopolybia).

Polybia anceps de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 190, female (in division Phi) - gLe Brésilh (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.).

Polybia pallipes; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim].

Polybia meridionalis R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 174 (key), 211 - [Brazil:] gEst. S. Paulo e Francah (lectotype female São Paulo) [name for P. phthisica and P. fasciata sensu de Saussure, 1854]. - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 254 (designation of lectotype; syn. of multipicta (Haliday)). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types).

Stelopolybia meridionalis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 523 (syn.: P. flavipennis Ducke; male, nest; Mexico; Nicaragua; Bolivia; Brazil; Paraguay; Venezuela). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secretar. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).

Stelolybia pallidipes var. anceps; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 522 (Colombia).

Gymnopolybia meridionalis; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 344 (? = multipicta). - Araujo, 1940, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 2: 11, figs. 1-6.

Gymnopolybia meridionalis obscura Araujo, 1940, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 2: 13 (key), 15, female, male - [Brazil:] gJuís de Fora (Minas Gerais)h (holotype female São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 255 (syn. of Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph anceps).

Stelopolybia pallipes var. anceps; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities).

Stelopolybia anceps; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 74.

Stelopolybia pallipes anceps; Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 142, figs. 11-12.

Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph multipicta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 254.

Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph anceps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 255.

Stelopolybia multipicta; Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference).

Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta; Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia multipicta multipicta; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list).

Agelaia multipicta; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1993, Bol. Mus. Entomol. Univ. Valle 1 (2): 5 (nest; Colombia). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology) , 136 (morphology). - Jeanne et al., 1995, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 68 (3): 279-289 (foraging; Venezuela). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 40 (key, figs. 3a, 3b-g, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f-h), 41 (Paraguay). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 194 (gA. m. multipicta recorded by Richards from Central America is A. yepocapa and specimens placed under A. m. multipicta in the BMNH from Choco, Colombia are A. melanopygah).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño; Venezuela: Barinas, Guárico, Mérida, Monagas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa, Paraguarí; Uruguay; Argentina: Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fé, Tucumán.

 

myrmecophila (Ducke)

Polybia myrmecophila Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 684, female, male - [Brazil:] gTefféh (lectotype female Paris); also from Barcellos, lower Rio Japurá; and Pará. - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 362, pl. 17 fig. 1. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 256 (designation of lectotype; syn.: S. vulgaris var. mexicana). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list).

Polybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 182 [partim].

Stelolybia pallidipes var. myrmecophila; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 522 (nest; syn.: centralis Cameron).

Gymnopolybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 343 [partim].

Stelopolybia pallipes var. myrmecophila; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 298.

Stelopolybia myrmecophila; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 256 [partim]. - Raw, 1996, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (Sér. Zool.) 12 (1): 8 (resemblance of Mischocyttarus mamirauae in coloration).

Agelaia myrmecophila; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types; vulgaris var. mexicana not a syn.). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 196, figs. 8, 27 (Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Brazil; Bolivia).

Distr.: Colombia; Peru: Huánuco; Ecuador; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Santa Cruz*.

 

nebularum Cooper

Agelaia nebularum Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 181 (key), 185, fig. 28, female - gBOLIVIA: La Paz, Zongo Valley at Cuticucho 2,700m ... upper limit of cloud foresth (London); also from 2000 m, and Chulumani.

Distr.: Bolivia: La Paz.

 

nigrescens Cooper

Agelaia nigrescens Cooper, 2001, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 137: 234, female - gECUADOR: Napo, Pañacocha, primary foresth (London); also from four other localities in Ecuador; and Peru; Colombia.

Distr.: Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Junin; Colombia: Putumayo.

 

ornata (Ducke)

Polybia ornata Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 20, female - [Brazil:] gTeffé (État d'Amazonas)h (lectotype Belém). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 7 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list).

Stelopolybia angulata var. ornata; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 520 (Brazil; Bolivia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296.

Stelopolybia ornata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 245. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 37 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia ornata; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 4 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 190 (male; Colombia).

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; Colombia: Meta; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

pallidiventris (Richards)

Stelopolybia pallidiventris Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 259, female - gECUADOR: Napo, Limoncocha, 0024'S, 7636'Wh (London); also from Colombia.

Agelaia pallidiventris; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 195 (male, nest, association with Azteca; Polybia singularis, P. rejecta, Synoeca virginea, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae; Colombia; Peru).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco.

 

pallipes festae (Zavattari)

Polybia Festae Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 17, female - [Ecuador: Morona-Santiago] gSan Joséh (Torino).

Stelolybia pallidipes var. anceps; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 522 (Ecuador).

Polybia pallipes cuzcoensis Schrottky, 1911, Entomol. Rundsch. 28 (3): 20 - gPeru, Cuzco, 1500 m.h (type lost).

Stelopolybia pallipes var. cuzcoensis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297.

Stelopolybia pallipes var. festae; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 297.

Stelopolybia pallipes festae; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 259.

Stelopolybia pallipes cuzcoensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 258. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list).

Agelaia pallipes cuzcoensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 194.

Agelaia pallipes festae; Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 194 (note on type locality; gssp. festae is only a darker form of ssp. cuzcoensish).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo,; Venezuela; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza; Peru: Amazonas, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Piura, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba.

 

pallipes pallipes (Olivier)

Vespa pallipes Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (type lost).

Polybia pallipes; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 189 (syn.: Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier; in division Phi; Brazil; French Guiana); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 2. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 683. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 15 (Ecuador). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 212 (Guyana).

Polybia pallidipes Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165 [unjustified emendation]; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 182 [partim]; 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 521 (pallidipes s. str.; syns.: P. anceps de Saussure, P. festae Zavattari, P. lutea Ducke, P. myrmecophila Ducke; female, male, nest; Costa Rica; Colombia; Brazil; Paraguay; Peru) [partim].

Polybia lutea Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 353, female - [Brazil:] gBelem do Pará, Mazagão, Obidosh (Bern, Paris); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 683 (syn. of pallipes). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (compared to pallipes var. centralis n. var.). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 3 (notes on types; syn. confirmed).

Stelopolybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 521 [partim].

Gymnopolybia pallidipes; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 343 [partim]. - Myers, 1937, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc London 12 (A): 71 (collecting honeydew of Membracidae in Venezuela). - Iriarte, 1943, Bol. Lab. Clinica Luis Razetti, Caracas 4 (11): 196 (Venezuela).

Stelopolybia pallipes; Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 294 (key), 297 (typical form). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Machado et al., 1987, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 16: 73-79 (ethology).

Gymnopolybia pallipes; Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 104-105 (mimicry).

Stelopolybia pallipes pallipes; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 240 (key), 258. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia pallipes pallipes; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia; list).

Agelaia pallipes; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 40 (key, figs. 4a-b, 4c), 41 (Paraguay). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 189 (records from Central America are really A. melanopyga n. sp.), 194.

Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Trujillo; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Ceará, D. F., Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción, San Pedro, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Cordillera, Paraguarí, Central; Argentina: Misiones.

 

panamaensis (Cameron)

Polybia panamaensis Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 382, female - gPanamah (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? var. of S. angulata).

Stelopolybia panamensis [!]; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 296. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 246 (panamaensis).

Agelaia panamaensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology). - OfDonnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 507 (panamensis [!]; Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 192, fig. 12 (Colombia; record from Peru dubious).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Tabasco, Veracruz; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras*; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Magdalena; Venezuela; Ecuador: Napo; Peru (?): Cuzco, Huánuco.

 

pleuralis Cooper

Agelaia pleuralis Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 185, fig. 10, female - gCOSTA RICA: Heredia, Finca Rara Avis 12km SW Horquetas, 600mh (London); also from Colombia: Nariño.

Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Nariño.

 

silvatica Cooper

Agelaia silvatica Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 187, female, male - gECUADOR: Pichincha, Nambillo Valley near Mindo 1,450mh (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Pichincha, and Cotopaxi.

Distr.: Ecuador: Cotopaxi, Pichincha.

 

testacea (Fabricius)

Polistes testacea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 276 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn).

Agelaia fuscicornis Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 536, female - gPatrie inconnueh (type lost?). - Carpenter and Day, 1988, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 90: 325 (syn. of Stelopolybia testacea (Fabricius)).

Polybia testacea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 183, pl. XXIII fig. 1, female not male (syn.: P. flavicans Fabricius; in division Phi).

Polybia fuscicornis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 210, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae.

Polybia flavicans; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil: Amazonas). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 43. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 346 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 15 (syn.: P. testacea; Ecuador).

Stelopolybia testacea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 520 (syn.: P. flavicans sensu Dalla Torre; female, male; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 296. - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela: Bolívar). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 244. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia testacea; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 133-136, fig. 1 (ethology), 136 (morphology).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando.

 

timida Cooper

Agelaia timida Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 177, 179 (key), 183, figs. 1-4, female, male, nest - gCOLOMBIA: Vaupes, Mituh (holotype female London); also from Meta, Putumayo; and Ecuador; Brazil; French Guiana.

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Brazil: Amazonas; French Guiana; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo.

 

vicina (de Saussure)

Polybia vicina de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 189, pl. XXIV fig. 7, female (in division Phi) - gLe Brésilh (lectotype Paris); 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 21 (compared to P. plebeja n. sp.). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Zool. Anz. 27: 115 (ethology). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil; compared to Monacanthocnemis buyssoni n. sp.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 246 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 5 (notes on types).

Stelopolybia vicina; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 548 (key), 521 (male, nest; Brazil). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 238 (key), 246, fig. 102. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Agelaia vicina; Baio et al., 1998, Sociobiol. 32 (3): 465-476 (caste polymorphism). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 39 (key, figs. 2a, 2b), 41 (Paraguay). -Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 179 (key), 190, fig. 11 (male compared to angulicollis (Spinola)).

Distr.: Brazil: Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Itapúa; Argentina: Misiones.

 

xanthopus melanotica (Richards)

Stelopolybia xanthopus melanotica Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 249, female (in division Phi) - gCOSTA RICA: Irazuh (London).

Agelaia xanthopus; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - OfDonnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 501-514 (mimicry by Mischocyttarus mastigophorus).

Distr.: Guatemala; Costa Rica.

 

xanthopus xanthopus (de Saussure)

Polybia xanthopus de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 190, female (in division Phi) - gLe Mexiqueh (? Torino). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.).

Stelopolybia xanthopus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 521 (female, nest; Mexico). - Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).

Stelopolybia xanthopus xanthopus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 239 (key), 249, fig. 104.

Agelaia xanthopus xanthopus; Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Agelaia xanthopus; Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 180 (key), 193.

Distr.: Mexico: Oaxaca, Veracruz.

 

yepocapa (Richards)

Stelopolybia yepocapa Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 237 (key), 243, fig. 98, female - gGUATEMALA: Yepocapah (Washington); also from Ecuador.

Stelopolybia multipicta multipicta morph multipicta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 254 [partim].

Agelaia yepocapa; O'Donnell and Jeanne, 1990, J. Trop. Ecol. 6: 507-509 (ethology). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 134 (ethology). - OfDonnell and Joyce, 1999, Biol J. Linn. Soc. 66: 501-514 (mimicry by Mischocyttarus mastigophorus). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 182 (key), 192, fig. 16 (male; paratypes from Ecuador are areata (Say); records of multipicta multipicta (Haliday) in Richards (1978) from Central America are this species; Mexico; El Salvador; Costa Rica; Panama).

Agelaia multipicta; Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas*, Guerrero, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz; Guatemala; El Salvador; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama.

 

 

Genus Angiopolybia Araujo

 

Angiopolybia Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secretar. Agric., São Paulo 7 (12): 166, 169, replacement name for Stelopolybia sensu Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 36: 306, 327.

Type species: Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier, 1836, by original designation.

Rhopalidia Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. I: 538, genus (2 species).  Unavailable; suppressed under the plenary powers of the ICZN (1976, Opinion 1051) (no. 2072 of Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology).

Type species: Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier, 1836, by subsequent designation of Schulz, 1912, Berl. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 60.

 

obidensis (Ducke)

Polybia obidensis Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 354, female - [Brazil:] gObidosh (lectotype Paris); also from Oyapoc; 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 140 (syn.: P. paraensis var. luctuosa Schulz). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 234 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (note on type).

Polybia paraensis luctuosa Schulz, 1905, Hym. Stud.: 132 - gSurinamh (lectotype female London). - Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 140 (syn. of P. obidensis Ducke). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 234 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6.

Stelopolybia obidensis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 526 (female; Brazil; Guyana; Suriname). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294.

Angiopolybia obidensis; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169; 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 231 (key), 234. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Lacey, 1979, Acta Amazon. 9: 755-762 (predation on nests of hylid Osteocephalus taurinus). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Brazil), table 2 (characters), figs. 2B, 4A.

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará.

 

pallens (Lepeletier)

Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 539, female - [French Guiana] gCayenne, Amérique méridionaleh (Torino). - Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 63 (nest). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 189 (syn. of Polybia pallipes (Olivier)). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 342 (syn. of Apoica pallida var. pallens (Fabricius)). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 542 (specimen in Spinola collection = S. infernalis (de Saussure)). - Schulz, 1912, Berl. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 60 (syn.: S. infernalis (de Saussure)).

Polistes rufina gIllig. i. mus.h Erichson, 1848, in Schomburgk, Reisen Br.-Guiana III: 590 - gBritisch-Guianah (? Berlin). - Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 63 (syn. of Rhopalidia pallens Lepeletier). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541.

Polybia infernalis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 195, female (in division My) - [Brazil:] gLe Parah (lectotype Paris); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 7. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Insect. 19: 77 (internalis [!]; cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 205. - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (syn.: P. ampullaria Möbius; nest). - Zavattari, 1906, Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 16 (Ecuador). - Richards, 1943, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B) 12: 45 (invalid designation as type species of Stelopolybia); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (designation of lectotype).

Polybia ampullaria Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 133, pl. 7; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 13, 35 (key), pl. VII figs. 1-8, female, nest - gBrasilienh (Berlin); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 9. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 349 (key), 354 (Brazil). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (notes on types; syn. confirmed).

Eumenes flavopectus Provancher, 1888, Addit. Faune Canada Hym. Suppl.: 422, female - gTrinidadh (Laval University, Quebec).

Polybia emaciata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451.  Misidentification.

Stelopolybia infernalis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 524, fig. 12 (male, nest; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil; Peru); 1913, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 331 (syn.: R. pallens Lepeletier).

Stelopolybia pallens; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294 (syns.: Polybia infernalis de Saussure, Polistes rufina Erichson, Polybia ampullaria Möbius, Eumenes flavopectus Provancher); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela: Monagas).

Angiopolybia pallens; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169; 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 231 (key), 232, fig. 95. - Lacey, 1979, Acta Amazon. 9: 755-762 (predation on nests of Leptodactylus pentadactylus). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 32 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 133-134 (ethology), 136 (morphology). - Theraulez and Bonabeau, 1995, J. Theor. Biol. 177: fig. 1c (nest). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Brazil), table 2 (characters), figs. 1A, 2A, 3B.

Angiopolybia infernalis; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Monagas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, San Martin, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba.

 

paraensis (Spinola)

Polistes paraensis Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 60, female - [Brazil:] gParah (? Torino).

Polybia paraensis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 185, pl. XXIII fig. 2 (in division Phi). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 354 (Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox).

Polybia ruficornis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 20, female - [Brazil:] gTabatinga, Haut Amazoneh (lectotype Paris); also from Rio Japurá; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 526 (syn. of paraensis (Spinola)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 235 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (notes on types).

Stelopolybia paraensis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 519 (key), 526 (syn.: P. ruficornis Ducke; female, male; Brazil; Bolivia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 293 (key), 294 (typical paraensis).

Stelopolybia paraensis var. ruficornis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 526 (nest; Brazil; Ecuador; Panama; Suriname). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 295.

Stelopolybia paraensis var. (or subsp.) obscurior Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 295, female  - gECUADOR: Jatun Yacu, Rio Napo watershed, 700 m.h (Cambridge); also from Colombia; Guyana; Suriname.

Angiopolybia paraensis; Araujo, 1946, Papéis Avulsos Dept. Zool. Secr. Agric., São Paulo 7: 169. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 72. - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Brazil; Colombia; Peru), table 2 (characters), figs. 1B, 4B.

Angiopolybia paraensis obscurior; van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 737.

Angiopolybia paraensis morph paraensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (key), 235.

Angiopolybia paraensis morph ruficornis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (key), 235.

Angiopolybia paraensis morph obscurior; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 232 (key), 235.

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolívar*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Maranhão, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

zischkai Richards

Angiopolybia zischkai Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 231 (key, 234), fig. 94, female - gECUADOR: Santiago-Zamora, Rio Zamora, Zumbi, 700 mh (New York); also from Bolivia; Peru. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Putumayo; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (note on type). - Andena et al., 2007, Zootaxa 1427: 59 (phylogenetic relationships), 63 (key), 64 (Panama), table 2 (characters), fig. 3A.

Distr.: Costa Rica*; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Putumayo; Ecuador: Zamora-Chinchipe; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Bolivia: Cochabamba.

 

 

Genus Apoica Lepeletier

 

Subgenus Apoica Lepeletier

 

Apoica Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. 1: 536, genus (2 species).

Type species: gApoica lineolata Lepeletier, 1836 = typical Vespa pallida Olivier, 1791,h by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1943, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 69: 108.

Protapoica Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79, name for group I of genus Apoica Lepeletier in de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 107 (2 species).

Type species: Vespa pallida Olivier, 1792, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 264.

Apoeca Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84.  Unjustified emendation.

 

albimacula (Fabricius)

Polistes albimacula Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 277 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 122 (cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71, species dubiae.

Polybia albimaculata [!]; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 212 (species dubiae). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (species dubiae).

Apoica albimacula; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn.: Apoeca lineolata Lepeletier). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 153. - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 268 (in subgenus Apoica). - Pickett, 2003, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 105 (3): 595, figs. 10B, 11A (compared to Apoica ambracarina n. sp.).

Apoica pallida var. albimacula; Bequaert, 1943, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 69: 117; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290 (key), 291.

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará.

 

ambracarina Pickett

Apoica ambracarina Pickett, 2003, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 105 (3): 592, figs. 1-9, 10A, 11B, female, male - gRio Branco, Acre State, Brazilh (holotype female São Paulo); also from another locality; and Colombia.

Distr.: Colombia; Brazil: Acre, Mato Grosso.

 

ellenae Pickett

Apoica ellenae Pickett, 2007, in Pickett and Wenzel, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3562: 1, 21 (key), 23, figs. 19, 20A, female (in subgenus Apoica) - gPanama CZ, Barro Colorado I.,h (holotype female Davis).

Distr.: Panama.

 

flavissima van der Vecht

Apoica pallida; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim].

Apoica flavissima van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 739 (key), 741, figs. 1, 4, 12, female, male - gDirkshoop, west of Paramaribo, in Surinamh (holotype male Leiden); also from elsewhere in Suriname; and Panama; French Guiana; Guyana; Brazil; Peru; Paraguay. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 264 (in subgenus Apoica). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Shima et al., 1994, Jap. J. Entomol. 62 (4): 811-822 (caste polymorphism). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (list).

Distr.: Panama; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Alagoas, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais*, Pará, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni*; Paraguay; Argentina: Salta.

 

gelida van der Vecht

Apoica pallida; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim].

Apoica pallens form C; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 156, fig. 24 [partim].

Apoica gelida van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 739 (key), 741, figs. 2, 5, female, male - gAlbina, N. E. Surinamh (holotype male Leiden); also from elsewhere in Suriname; and French Guiana; Trinidad; Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 265 (in subgenus Apoica). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (list).

Distr.: Colombia; Venezuela; Trinidad; Grenada*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco; Brazil: Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco*, Rio de Janeiro; Paraguay*.

 

pallens (Fabricius)

Polistes pallens Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 276 - gAmerica meridionalih (lectotype female Kobenhavn). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: pl. XVIII figs. 1-5. - Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn. of Apoeca pallida (Olivier); note on types).

Apoica pallida; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 538 [misidentification]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim]. - ? Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay).

Apoica pallida var. pallens; du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 342 (syn.: R. pallens Lepeletier). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290 (key), 291; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities).

Apoica pallens form A; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 153, fig. 23 [partim].

Apoica pallens; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 251 (Brazil: Amapá). - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 739 (key), 741, figs. 3, 6. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 264, fig. 106 (in subgenus Apoica). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - Hunt et al., 1995, Ins. Soc. 42 (3): 223-236 (ethology). - Jeanne et al., 1995, Naturwissen. 82 (6): 296-298 (caste polymorphism). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 38, fig. (Paraguay).

Distr.: Mexico; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Cundinamarca, Putumayo; Venezuela: Amazonas, Barinas, Guárico, Mérida, Yaracuy, Zulia; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Concepción, San Pedro, Caaguazú, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Paraguarí; Argentina: Misiones.

 

pallida (Olivier)

Vespa pallida Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675, female - gl'isle de la Trinitéh (type lost).

Apoica lineolata Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 537, female? - [Argentina] gBuenos-Ayres, Amérique méridionaleh (type lost?). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 108 (bilineolata [!]; syn. of A. virginea (Fabricius)). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 341 (syn. of A. pallida (Olivier)), 359 (lineata [!]). - Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn. of Apoeca albimacula (Fabricius)).

Polistes translucida Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 63 - [Brazil:] gParah (Torino?). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71 (translucidus [!]; cat.).

Apoica pallida; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 107, pl. XVIII fig. 1 (syn.: P. pallens Fabricius; French Guiana to Argentina). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 34 (key); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 329 (key), fig. 1. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (syn.: gVespa pallens Fabriciush; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 357, fig.c,  pl. 1 fig. 2 (Brazil); 1905, Zeitschr. Wissen. Insektenbiol. 1 (4): 177 (ethology). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 153 (Belize). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 341. - Ducke, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 86 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517 (pallida s. str.; syns.: P. pallens Fabricius, R. pallens Lepeletier, P. translucida Spinola, P. virginea Fabricius, A. lineolata Lepeletier, A. arborea de Saussure; female, male). - Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 13 (nest associated with Polybia rejecta in Brazil). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Bequaert, 1943, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 69: 110; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 289, 290 (typical pallida); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela localities). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 152, figs. 20-21. - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (nest; Guyana). - Schremmer, 1972, Ins. Soc. 19: 343-357 (ethology). - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 266, fig. 105 (in subgenus Apoica). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 44 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology).

Apoica virginea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 107 (syn.: Apoïca bilineolata [!] Lepeletier), 244 (variation), pl. XVIII fig. 2. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (syn.: lineolata Lepeletier; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 358, pl. 2 fig. 9 (Brazil).  Misidentification.

Apoica pallida var. virginea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517, fig. 11.

Apoeca pallida; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syn.: A. pallens (Fabricius)).

Apoica pallida pallida; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 251 (Brazil: Amapá).

Distr.: Belize; Colombia; Venezuela: Aragua, Monagas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz.

 

strigata Richards

Apoica pallida var. arborea; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 116 [partim].

Apoica strigata Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 267, fig. 107, female, male (in subgenus Apoica) - gPERU: Junín, Chanchamayoh (holotype female London); also from Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; and Ecuador; Colombia; Bolivia; Trinidad; Guyana; Brazil. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá*, Meta*; Trinidad; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha*; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba.

 

thoracica du Buysson

Apoica pallida; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 445 [partim].

Apoica pallida var. thoracica du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 340 (key), 343, female - gBrésil: Espírito Santoh (lectotype female Hamburg); also from French Guiana. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Barinas, Amazonas, Miranda, gCumaraguah). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 268 (designation of lectotype; syntypes from French Guiana = albimacula (Fabricius)).

Apoica thoracica; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 152. - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 251 (Brazil: Amapá). - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 742, figs. 7-11 (male). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 262 (key), 268 (in subgenus Apoica). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Pickett, 2003, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 105 (3): 597, fig. 11C (compared to Apoica ambracarina n. sp.).

Distr.: Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas*, Caquetá*, Meta, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Amazonas, Barinas, Miranda; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz.

 

Subgenus Deuterapoica Dalla Torre

 

Deuterapoica Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 79, name for group II of genus Apoica Lepeletier in de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 108 (2 species).

Type species: Apoica arborea de Saussure, 1854, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 263.

 

arborea de Saussure

Apoica arborea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 108, female - gL'Amérique du Sudh (? London); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXVI fig. 1. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (cat.). - von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 159. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Ecuador). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 157, figs. 17-19. - van der Vecht, 1972, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (N. S.) 8: 736, 737, photo 1. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 261 (key), 264 (in subgenus Deuterapoica). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 49 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Caquetá; list).

Apoica pallida var. arborea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 517 (type seen in London; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 116 [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 290 (key), 291.

Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Santa Cruz.

 

 

Genus Asteloeca Raw

 

Asteloeca Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 29: 185, genus.

Type species: Polybia traili Cameron, 1906, by original designation and monotypy.

 

lutea Carpenter

Asteloeca lutea Carpenter, 2004, in Carpenter et al., Am. Mus. Novitat. 3427: 1, 4, figs. 1-2, 9-11, female, nest - gBolivia: Dpto. Santa Cruz, Buena Vistah (New York); also from another locality; and Brazil; Ecuador.

Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Acre; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz.

 

traili (Cameron)

Polybia Traili Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 383, female - [Brazil:] gRio Purus, Amazonsh (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? syn. of M. pseudomimeticus Schulz).

Polybia Ujhelyii var. obscura Ducke, 1909, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7: 626, female - [Brazil:] gFontebôa (Haut Amazone)h (Budapest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 511. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 199 (ujhelyi [!]; syn. of Occipitalia traili (Cameron)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (ujhelyi [!]; note on type; syn. confirmed).

Occipitalia traili morph traili; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 198 (key), 199 (Peru; Brazil).

Asteloeca traili; Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 29: 185 (type species of Asteloeca n. gen.), 187, figs. 1, 3, 5, 7, 11-12, 15, 17-22. - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159-163, 164 (male genitalia; nest; phylogeny). - Carpenter et al., 2004, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3427: 4 (key), 11, figs. 5-7, 14, 16 (Brazil: Pará, Acre.

Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará.

 

ujhelyii (Ducke)

Polybia Ujhelyii Ducke, 1909, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7: 626, female - [Brazil:] gTeffé (Haut Amazone)h (lectotype Paris); also from French Guiana; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 511. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 277 (key), 281 (Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 199 (ujhelyi [!]; designation of lectotype; syn. of Occipitalia traili (Cameron)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (ujhelyi [!]; notes on types).

Occipitalia traili morph ujhelyi [!]; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 198 (key), 199.

Polybia traili; Garcia, 1978, Rev. Peru Entomol. 21: 19, figs. 48-51 (nest; Peru).

Occipitalia ujhelyi [!]; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list).

Occipitalia traili; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Putumayo; list).

Asteloeca ujhelyii; Carpenter et al., 2004, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3427: 4 (key), 9, figs. 3-4, 80, 12-13, 15, 17-18 (Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre).

Distr.:  Colombia: Putumayo; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto, Ucayali; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas; ? Bolivia: Santa Cruz.

 

 

Genus Brachygastra Perty

 

Brachygastra Perty, 1833, Delect. Anim. Artic. Brasil. Coll.: 145, genus (2 species).

Type species: Brachygastra analis Perty, 1833 [= Polistes lecheguana Latreille, 1824], by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1933, Entomologica Am. 13: 89.

Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, Cab. Cyclop. no. 129: 183.  Unnecessary replacement name for Brachygastra Perty, 1833, thought to be preoccupied by Brachygaster Leach, 1817 (Hymenoptera).

Melissaia Shuckard, 1841, in White, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320, footnote.  Unnecessary replacement name for Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, thought to be preoccupied by Nectarinia Illiger, 1811 (Aves).

Brachygaster de Saussure, 1853, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 1: 171, footnote.  Incorrect spelling of Brachygastra Perty.

Nectarinia de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 225; H. von Ihering, 1896, Zool. Anz. 19: 451, 453; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia: 460; Reid, 1942, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 92: 313-315.  Incorrect spelling of Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard.

Caba R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 103, 105, replacement name for gNectarina Schuckard, 1840h.  Unnecessary replacement name for Nectarina Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, thought to be preoccupied by Nectarinia Illiger, 1811 (Aves).

 

albula Richards

Brachygastra albula Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 177, female - gBRAZIL: MT, Base Camp, 1250'S, 5147'Wh (London); also from another locality in Mato Grosso, and Rondônia. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Caquetá; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá; Brazil: Mato Grosso, Rondônia.

 

augusti (de Saussure)

Nectarinia Augusti de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 233, female - gLe Brésil. Capit. de Saint Paul, Rio Grande, Goyazh (lectotype Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 153. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 953, 956 (designation of lectotype). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 169 (invalid designation of lectotype). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (note on type).

Nectarina augusti; Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 254 (var.; Brazil; Peru). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 321 (male; Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (nest; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 557 (Brazil; Venezuela; Peru; Suriname; French Guiana; Paraguay). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 482 (syns.: C. amazonicus Cameron, N. augusti var. quinta R. von Ihering; female, male, nest; Panama; Brazil) - Dover, 1925 (1924), Psyche 31: 307 (Venezuela: D. F.).

Nectarinia Augusti var. quinta R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 153 - [Brazil:] gRio Jurua (Amazonas)h (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Paraná and São Paulo. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 558 (Nectarina; Peru; Brazil; Panama). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 482 (Nectarina). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 953 (designation of lectotype; syn. of B. augusti de Saussure). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 169 (note on lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (note on type).

Caba augusti; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, 107.

Caba augusti var. quinta; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 108, pl. 4 fig. 3.

Chartergus amazonicus Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 380, female - gCararamer-Amazoniah (London).

Brachygastra augusti; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (list). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 953, figs. 35-38, 40-41 (syns.: N. augusti var. quinta R. von Ihering, Chartergus amazonicus Cameron; female, male, nest; ethology; Costa Rica; Panama; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Guyana; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Peru; Surinam; Venezuela). - West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 257 (angusti [!]; Colombia: Cauca). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 169. - Jeanne, 1978, Biotropica 10: 234 (nesting). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 29 (key, figs. 1a, 1a-b, 1c; Paraguay).

Brachygastra augusti augusti; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Putumayo, Santander, Tolima, Valle; Venezuela: Anzoátegui, Bolívar, Carabobo, D. F., Yaracuy; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cajamarca, Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco, San Martín; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Concepción, San Pedro, Amambay, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Guairá; Argentina: Misiones.

 

azteca (de Saussure)

Nectarinia azteca de Saussure, 1857, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 9 (6): 280 - gLe Mexique (des terres chaudes de la province de Mexico)h (lectotype female Paris); 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (2), Hym.: 23 (Mexico). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 554, pl. 12 figs. 11, 16-17, pl. 13 fig. 2, pl. 14 fig. 1 (Nectarina; Mexico). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 478 (key), 482 (syn.: Chartergus mexicanus Cameron; female, male, nest). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 940 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 6 (notes on types).

Chartergus mexicanus Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 154, female - gAcapulco, Mexicoh (lectotype London); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 182 (key). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types).

Brachygastra azteca; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 940, figs. 25-30, 33 (syn.: Chartergus mexicanus Cameron; female, male, nest; ethology; Mexico). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 165. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 501 (key), 502, figs. 2.3, 6.3. - Ladron De Guevara et al., 1995, Amino Acids 9 (2): 161-173 (amino acid content). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora.

 

baccalaurea (R. von Ihering)

Nectarinia baccalaurea R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 154 (lectotype female São Paulo). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 553, pl. 12 fig. 9 (Nectarina; female, male; Peru; Ecuador). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 478 (key), 481 (Nectarina; female, male; Peru). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 959, 962 (designation of lectotype, from Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 177 (invalid designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types).

Caba baccalaurea; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, pl. 4 fig. 4.

Brachygastra baccalaurea; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 937 (key), 959, figs. 61, 65 (female, male; Bolivia; Ecuador; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 177. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Sarmiento, 1993, Bol. Mus. Entomol. Univ. Valle 1 (2): 7 (Colombia); 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá; Ecuador: Napo, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Junín; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

bilineolata Spinola

Brachygastra bilineolata Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 124, 126, female - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (lectotype Torino). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 303, 304 (typical bilineolata; syn.: Nectarinia möbiana de Saussure; Guyana; Venezuela; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271 (key), 273 (typical bilineolata); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (nest; Guyana). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 962, figs. 51-56, 59, 68 (designation of lectotype; syns.: N. möbiana de Saussure, O. antillarum Provancher, C. bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering, B. bilineolata var. surinamensis Bequaert; female, male; Bolivia; Brazil; Guyana; Colombia; French Guiana; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad; Venezuela) [partim]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 171. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types).

Brachygastra dorsolineata [!]; Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 123.

Nectarinia bilineolata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 228, 231 (bilineata [!]); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXXIV fig. 2. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 218 (Guyana).

Nectarina bilineolata; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322 (Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (nest) [partim]. - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 551 (French Guiana; Suriname; Colombia; Brazil). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 480, fig. 4 (syns. N. smithii de Saussure, N. moebiana de Saussure, bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering; female, male; Colombia; French Guiana; Brazil; Suriname).

Odynerus Antillarum Provancher, 1888, Addit. Faune Canada Hym. Suppl.: 420, female - gTrinidadh (Laval University, Quebec).

Caba bilineolata; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, 111.

Caba bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106 (key), 112 - gSurinamh (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Brazil. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 171 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types).

Nectarina smithi [!] var. fasciata; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 663.

Nectarina bilineolata var. smithi [!]; Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1938, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 87: 184.  Misidentification.

Brachygastra bilineolata var. antillarum; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil; Peru; Honduras); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273.

Brachygastra bilineolata var. smithii; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 305 [partim].

Brachygastra bilineolata var. (or subsp.) surinamensis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 306, female - gDUTCH GUIANA (or Surinam)h (Cambridge); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273.

Distr.: Colombia: Magdalena, Meta; Venezuela: Amacuro, Anzoátegui, Bolívar; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cajamarca, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz.

 

borellii (Zavattari)

Caba Borellii Zavattari, 1906, Bol. Mus. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (523): 1, female - gSalta (Repubblica Argentina)h (type lost).

Nectarina lecheguana var. Borellii; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 482.

Brachygastra lecheguana var. borellii; Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 146.

Brachygastra borellii; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 939 (key), 991, fig. 65 (female; Argentina; Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 165.

Distr.: Argentina: Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán; Bolivia: Cochabamba.

 

buyssoni (Ducke)

Nectarina Buyssoni Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11, female - [Brazil:] gTabatinga, dans le Haut-Amazoneh (lectotype Paris); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 663. - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 554. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 481 (female; Brazil; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 177 (designation of lectotype, as Nectarinia [!]). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types).

Brachygastra buyssoni; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 937 (key), 975, figs. 50, 66 (female; Brazil; Peru; Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 177. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Distr.: Venezuela: Amazonas*; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

fistulosa Naumann

Brachygastra fistulosa Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 949, figs. 31-32, 34, female - gCorupá, Est. Santa Catarina, Brazilh (New York); also from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 171.

Distr.: Peru; Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo.

 

lecheguana (Latreille)

Vespa sericea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 266 - gAmerica meridionalih (lectotype female Kobenhavn) [junior primary homonym of Vespa sericea Olivier, 1792]. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 984 (designation of lectotype). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326.

Polistes lecheguana Latreille, 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 317, female - gBrésilh (Paris); also from Paraguay. - Saint-Hilaire, 1825, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 12: pl. 12 fig. B. - Say, 1837, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 390 (compared to P. mellifica n. sp.). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types).

Brachygastra analis Perty, 1833, Delect. Anim. Artic. Brasil. Coll.: 146, pl. 28 fig. 6 - [Brazil:] gProvincia Piauhiensih (type depository unknown). - Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 127 (Mexico). - Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, Cab. Cyclop. no. 129: 183 (identical with V. lecheguana). - White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320 (syn. of M. lecheguana (Latreille)).

Vespa lecheguana; Swainson and Shuckard, 1840, Cab. Cyclop. no. 129: 183.

Brachygastra velutina Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 126, pl. 3 fig. V, female - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (Torino). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 984 (syn. of B. lecheguana (Latreille)).

Melissaia lecheguana; White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320 (syn.: B. analis Perty).

Epipone [!] lecheguana; Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (syn.: Brachygaster [!] analis Perty).

Brachygastra aurulenta Erichson, 1848, in Schomburgk, Reisen Br.-Guiana III: 590 - gBritisch-Guianah (? Berlin). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 984 (syn. of B. lecheguana (Latreille)).

Nectarinia binotata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 230, male - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 988 (gtypeh specimen in Paris is labeled gColombieh).

Nectarinia analis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 230. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.).

Nectarinia velutina; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 231. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137.

Nectarina velutina; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 321 (Nectarina; Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11.

Nectarinia lecheguana; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 232, pl. XXX; 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: pl. XXXIV fig. 3. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina Lecheguana; cat.). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 558, pls. 11, 12 figs. 1-8, 10, 13, pl. 14 fig. 2, pls. 15-16 (Nectarina; syns.: B. analis Perty, P. mellifica Say; Mexico; Ecuador; Brazil; Argentina; Uruguay; Paraguay; Venezuela) [partim]. - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Nectarina; Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 84 (Nectarina; Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 479 (key), 481 (syns.: B. analis Perty, P. mellifica Say, B. velutina Spinola, B. aurulenta Erichson, C. Borellii Zavattari, C. sericeus gMoeb.,h ? V. sericea Fabricius, C. arizonaensis Cameron, C. centralis Cameron, C. aztecus Cameron, N. binotata de Saussure; female, male, nest; U. S. A.; Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox).

Chartergus sericeus; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 144; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 24, 34 (key), pl. XVI (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.).

Nectarinia aurulenta; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.).

Nectarinia sericeus; de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (2), Hym.: 22 (compared to N. möbiana n. sp.).

Caba lecheguana; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106.

Caba analis; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 107.

Caba binotata; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 107.

Nectarina lecheguana var. binotata; du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 563 (Colombia).

Nectarina lecheguana var. velutina; du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 563 (syn.: Brachygastra aurulenta Erichson; Mexico; Guatemala; Colombia; Venezuela; Brazil). - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará: 663 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 482 (syn.: aurulenta Erichson).

Caba lecheguana var. velutina; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 3 (Panama).

Brachygastra lecheguana; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271 (key), 272 [partim]. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 939 (key), 984, figs. 1-9, 13, 15-18 (syns.: V. sericea Fabricius, B. analis Perty, B. velutina Spinola, B. aurulenta Erichson, N. binotata de Saussure; female, male, nest; ethology; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Guyana; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 165. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Soares and Lara, 1994, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 23 (1): 135-136 (predation on Anthonomus grandis pupae). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585. - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 29 (key, figs. 1aa, 1aa-bb, 1cc; Paraguay).

Brachygastra lecheguana var. velutina; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 272 (list); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela localities). - Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 26.

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquía, Atlantico, Bolívar, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Santander, Tolima; Venezuela: Amacuro, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Guarico*, D. F., Trujillo, Zulia; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Guayas; Peru: Cajamarca, Lambayeque, Loreto, Piura, Tumbes; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Presidente Hayes, Concepción, Canindeyú, Caagazú, San Pedro, Central, Cordillera, Paraguarí, Guairá, Alto Paraná, Misiones; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fé, San Luis, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán.

 

mellifica (Say)

Polistes mellifica Say, 1837, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 1: 390, female, male - gMexico ... near Jalapah (neotype male Berkeley). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 978, 982 (designation of neotype, from gVera Cruz, V. C., Mex.h).

Nectarinia mellifica; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 233; 1858, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXX bis. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 137.

Nectarina mellifica; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 318 (ecology).

Nectarina mellifera Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Insect. 19: 86.  Invalid emendation.

Caba mellifica; Barber, 1905, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 7: 25 (in subgenus Nectarina).

Chartergus aztecus Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 154, female - gMexicoh (London, Zürich); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181 (compared to arizonaensis n. sp.), 182 (key) [secondary junior homonym of Nectarinia azteca de Saussure, 1857]. - Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 112 (transferred to Nectarina). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 7 (notes on types).

Chartergus arizonaensis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181 (also spelled arizonensis [!]), 182 (key), female - [U. S. A.] gNogales, Arizonah (London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 166 (arizonensis [!]).

Chartergus centralis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181, 182 (key), female - gChinandega, Nicaragua, and Champerico, Guatemalah (London).

Nectarina cameroni Meade-Waldo, 1911, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 7: 112.  Replacement name for Chartergus aztecus Cameron, 1906.

Nectarina lecheguana; Schwarz, 1929, Nat. Hist. 29: 421-426, 5 figs. (nest, honey production).

Brachygastra mellifica; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 939 (key), 978, figs. 22-24 (syns.: C. arizonaensis Cameron, C. centralis Cameron, N. cameroni Meade-Waldo; female, male, nest; ethology; Belize; Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; U. S. A.). - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 163 (key), 166. - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 501 (key), 504, fig. 2.4. - Sugden and Mcallen, 1994, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 67 (2): 141-155 (ethology). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: U. S. A.: AZ, TX; Mexico: Baja California, Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México; Michoacán, Morelos, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica.

 

moebiana (de Saussure)

Nectarinia möbiana de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (2), Hym.: 22, female - gSurinamh (? Wien). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina Moebiana; cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 12 (compared to Nectarinia buyssoni n. sp.). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273 (syn. of B. bilineolata, typical form). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 963 (syn. of B. bilineolata Spinola).

Nectarinia bilineolata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox).  Misidentification.

Caba moebiana; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106.

Nectarina bilineolata var. Mobiana; du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 547 (key), 552 (Brazil; Suriname). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 480 (Brazil).

Nectarina bilineolata moebiana; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 327.

Brachygastra moebiana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 175. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Meta; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta; Venezuela: Amazonas*; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Pando.

 

mouleae Richards

Brachygastra mouleae Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 170, female - gBRAZIL: São Paulo, Rio Claro, Fazenda Jussurah (São Paulo).

Distr.: Brazil: São Paulo.

 

myersi Bequaert

Brachygastra scutellaris var. (or subsp.) myersi Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 308, female - gBRITISH GUIANA: Mt. Roraimah (Cambridge); also from Bolivia; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 272. - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 945 (syn. of B. scutellaris (Fabricius)).

Brachygastra myersi; Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 26. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 168. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Nariño; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador; Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Bolivia: Beni, Pando.

 

propodealis Bequaert

Brachygastra bilineolata var. (or subsp.) propodealis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 305, female - gPERU: Middle Rio Marañonh (Cambridge).

Brachygastra propodealis; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 973 (female; Bolivia; Brazil; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 178. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Caquetá, Meta; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Meta; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

scutellaris (Fabricius)

Vespa scutellaris Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 265 - gAmerica meridionalih (lectotype female Kobenhavn). - Latreille, 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 316 (compared to Polistes lecheguana n. sp.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326.

Brachygastra scutellaris; Perty, 1833, Delect. Anim. Artic. Brasil. Coll.: 146. - Spinola, 1841, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 10: 127 (French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (typical scutellaris; syn.: B. scutellata Spinola; Panama; Guyana; French Guiana; Bolivia; Brazil; Peru; Colombia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 271 (key), 272 (typical scutellaris). - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 945, figs. 42-45 (syns.: B. scutellata Spinola, N. rufiventris de Saussure, N. scutellata var. gribodoi du Buysson, B. scutellaris var. myersi Bequaert, B. scutellaris var. annectens Bequaert, B. scutellaris var. colombiensis Bequaert; female, nest; ethology; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Brazil; Guyana; Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Peru; Surinam) [partim]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164 (key), 166, fig. 78. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica).

Brachygastra scutellata Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 58, female - gBrèsilh (Torino).

Nectarinia rufiventris de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226, female - [Brazil:] gLe Parah (London). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (Nectarina; cat.).

Nectarinia scutellata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 226 (key), 227. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (note on material seen by Fox).

Chartergus scutellaris; Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 23, 34 (key), pl. XV (nest; Brazil).

Nectarina scutellata; Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 254 (var.; Peru). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322 (male, nest; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 547 (Brazil; French Guiana; Peru; Colombia).

Nectarina scutellata var. rufiventris; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322. - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 549 (French Guiana; Brazil: Pará, Piaui).

Caba rufiventris; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106, 108.

Nectarina scutellata var. Gribodoi du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 549, female - gHaut Amazone ... Pérou: Yquitosh (Budapest).

Nectarina scutellaris; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (syns.: scutellata Spinola, rufiventris de Saussure; nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (Brazil), 663; 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Nectarina; nest; Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 478 (key), 479 (syn.: N. scutellata var. Gribodoi du Buysson; female, male, nest; Brazil).

Brachygastra scutellaris var. (or subsp.) annectens Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 307, female - gCOLOMBIA: Muzo, Dept. Boyacá, 900 m.h (Cambridge).

Brachygastra scutellaris var. rufiventris; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 307 (Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 272.

Brachygastra scutellaris var. gribodoi; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 307 (Peru; Colombia).

Brachygastra scutellaris var. (or subsp.) colombiensis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 306 (key), 308, female - gCOLOMBIA: Restrepo, Int. del Meta, 500 m.h (Cambridge).

Distr.: Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Putumayo, Santander; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba.

 

smithii (de Saussure)

Nectarinia smithii de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 226 (key), 229, pl. XXXI fig. 8, female - gLe Brésil. Santaremh (neotype female Cambridge). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 136, pl. 5 fig. 2. - - Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 971 (designation of neotype, from gCarveiro, Rio Negro-Rio Branco, Amazonash).

Nectarina Smithi [!]; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86, pl. 6 fig. 7 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 322, pl. 1 fig. 1 (smithii; nest; Brazil); 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11 (Smithi [!]; nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (Nectarina smithi [!]; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1905, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 74: 546 (key), 550, pl. 12 figs. 12, 14-15, pl. 13 fig. 1 (Smithi [!]; French Guiana; Suriname; Peru; Brazil).

Caba smithi [!]; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 106.

Nectarina bilineolata var. smithi[!]; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 156, 157; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 480, fig. 4 (syn.: bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering; Brazil). - Dover, 1925 (1924), Psyche 31: 307 [partim].

Nectarina bilineolata smithii; Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 327.

Brachygastra bilineolata var. smithii; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 304 (key), 305 (syn.: Caba bilineolata var. fasciata R. von Ihering; Colombia; French Guiana; Brazil); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 273.

Brachygastra smithii; Naumann, 1968, Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47: 938 (key), 968, figs. 46-49, 57-58, 60, 62-64, 67 (female, male, nest; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Panama; Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana; Peru; Suriname). - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 164-165 (key), 174. - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171 (nesting associations). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 585 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas; Guatemala; El Salvador*; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander; Venezuela: Zulia*; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni.

 

 

Genus Chartergellus Bequaert

 

Chartergellus Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 106, subgenus of Chartergus sensu Bequaert [= Parachartergus von Ihering, 1904].

Type species: Vespa frontalis Fabricius, 1804 [= Chartergellus amazonicus Richards, 1978, replacement name for Vespa frontalis Fabricius, 1804, non Latreille, 1802], by original designation and monotypy.

 

afoveatus Cooper

Chartergellus afoveatus Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129: 165, female, male - gBOLIVIA: Beni, Rurrenabaque. 270 mh (holotype female London); also from Pando.

Distr.: Bolivia: Beni, Pando.

 

amazonicus Richards

Vespa frontalis Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 265 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn) [junior primary homonym of Vespa frontalis Latreille, 1802]. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326.

Chartergus ater de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 222 - gLe Brésilh (? Torino) [junior primary homonym of Chartergus ater Lepeletier, 1836]. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 323, 328 (key), 332 (redescription; Brazil).

Chartergus frontalis; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 143; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 23, 35 (key), pl. XIV (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (syn.: Chartergus ater de Saussure; in subgenus Chartergellus; Brazil: Goyaz) [partim].

Parachartergus ater; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13.

Pseudochartergus [!] frontalis; Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141.

Parachartergus frontalis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 157, 160 (Brazil; Peru); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 533 (typical form; syns.: C. ater de Saussure, C. zonatus Spinola; female, nest; Venezuela; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (list).

Chartergellus amazonicus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 217, 218 (key), 220 [replacement name for Vespa frontalis Fabricius]. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; list).

? Chartergellus frontalis; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Venezuela: Carabobo; Suriname; French Guiana*; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas.

 

atectus Richards

Chartergellus atectus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218 (key), 220, fig. 89, female, male - gCOLOMBIA: Valle, Anchicayáh (holotype female London); also from Panama; Costa Rica; French Guiana. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Valle; French Guiana; Brazil.

 

communis Richards

Chartergus ater; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso).

Chartergus frontalis; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (Brazil: Goiás) [partim].

Chartergellus communis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218, fig. 88, female, male - gBRAZIL: MT, base camp, 1250'S, 5147'Wh (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from two other localities in Mato Grosso, and Goiás, Minas Gerais, Maranhão. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox and Bequaert). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material; Brazil: Espírito Santo). - Garcete-Barrett, 2002 (2001), Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. 13: 47 (Paraguay).

Distr.: Brazil: Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará; Paraguay: Concepción.

 

nigerrimus Richards

Chartergellus nigerrimus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 217 (key), 222, female - gBRAZIL: Acre, Cruzeiro do Sul, Treize de Maioh (London); also from Peru; Ecuador; Colombia. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Valle; Ecuador: Napo; Peru; Brazil: Acre.

 

punctatior Richards

Chartergellus punctatior Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218 (key), 221, fig. 90, female, male - gPERU: ? Loreto, Rio Huallaga, Puente Cayumba, 800 mh (holotype female London); also from Pasco, Huánuco; Brazil; French Guiana; Suriname. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 44 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; list). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 3 (male genitalia).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Pará.

 

sanctus Richards

Chartergellus sanctus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 217 (key), 223, female - gBRAZIL: Espírito Santo, Santa Teresah (Curitiba). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 44 (note on type material).

Distr.: Brazil: Espírito Santo.

 

zonatus (Spinola)

Chartergus zonatus Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 57, female - [Brazil:] gParah (Torino). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 217 (key), 222. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325.

Parachartergus frontalis var. zonatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 533 (Peru).

Chartergellus zonatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 218 (unrecognized species). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list).

Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Pará.

 

 

Genus Charterginus Fox

 

Charterginus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 458, genus.

Type species: Charterginus fulvus Fox, 1898, by original designation.

Hypochartergus Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Musei Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 6, genus.

Type species: Hypochartergus carinatus Zavattari, 1906, by monotypy.

 

carinatus (Zavattari)

Hypochartergus carinatus Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 7, figs. 1-5, female - [Panama:] guna foresta presso le sponde del Rio Cianatih (Torino).

Charterginus carinatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 467 (female; key; Panama). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 102. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 129. - Schremmer, 1978, Entomol. General. 5 (1): 17-23, figs. 1-5 (nest; Colombia: Sucre). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Sucre.

 

fulvus Fox

Charterginus fulvus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 458, 459, female - gBrazil ... Santaremh (Pittsburgh); also from Mararú. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 669, pl. II fig. 7a-b (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 467 (key; Brazil; Peru). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 103 (Brazil: Pará; Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 131, fig. 67. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (designation of lectotype).- Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420, figs. 18-19 (morphology).

Polybia fulva; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340, pl. 1 fig. 3 (in subgenus Charterginus; male, nest; Brazil).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Apurimac, Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba.

 

nevermanni Bequaert

Charterginus nevermanni Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 99, fig.1, pl. 3, female, nest (in subgenus Hypochartergus) - gCOSTA RICA: 20 kilom. North of Siquirres and about 12 kilom. from the Atlantic Oceanh (Eberswalde); also from Suretka; and Honduras; Panama. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 129. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420, figs. 20-21 (morphology).

Distr.: Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama.

 

weyrauchi Richards

Charterginus weyrauchi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128, female - gPERU: Huanco [Huánuco], Cordillera Azul, Fazenda Sinchono, 1300 mh (London). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420, figs. 16-17 (morphology).

Distr.: Peru: Huánuco.

 

xanthurus (de Saussure)

Icaria xanthura de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 236, female - gMadagascarh [error] (London); 1890, in Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar 20, Hym. 1: 113, 125 (female). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 121 (cat.); 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 75 (cat.). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 417-420 (rediscription of type).

Icaria aberrans Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 246, female - gIndiah [error] (Genova). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 417 (syn. of C. xanthura (de Saussure)).

Polybia huberi Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 341, female, nest (in subgenus Charterginus) - [Brazil:] gOyapoch (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 131 (designation of lectotype; syn. of C. aberrans (Gribodo)). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (notes on types).

Charterginus huberi; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 669, fig. 7, pl. II fig. 8a-b (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 467 (female, nest; key; Brazil; French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 103; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (syn.: P. fulvicauda Cameron; list). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list).

Polybia fulvicauda Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London).

Charterginus aberrans; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 131, fig. 66.

Ropalidia xanthura; Richards, 1978, Austr. J. Zool., Suppl. Ser. 61: 57 (in subgenus Polistratus; list), 121 (key).

Charterginus xanthura; Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 417, figs. 2-12, 22-23 (syn.: I. abberrans Gribodo).

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá.

 

zavattarii Richards

Charterginus zavattarii Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 128 (key), 129, fig. 65, female - gCOLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas, 50 mh (London); also from Valle. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and Carpenter, 1998, Entomol. Sci. 1: 420 (morphology).

Distr.: Colombia: Nariño, Valle.

 

 

Genus Chartergus Lepeletier

 

Chartergus Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 542, genus (2 species).

Type species: Vespa nidulans Fabricius, 1793 [= Vespa artifex surinamensis Christ, 1791], by subsequent designation of Blanchard, 1840, Hist. Nat. Anim. Artic. 3: 395.

Chatergus Erichson, 1838, Arch. Naturgesch. 4 (2): 237; H. von Ihering, 1927, Gesch. Atlant. Ozeans: 180.  Incorrect spelling of Chartergus Lepeletier.

Chartoteuchium Börner, 1919, Biol. Zbl. 39: 186, genus.  Nomen nudum.

Chartegus Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venezolana 7: 131.  Incorrect spelling of Chartergus Lepeletier.

Chartoteuchium Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132; reference to Chartoteuchium Börner.

Type species: Vespa chartaria Olivier, 1792 [= Vespa artifex surinamensis Christ, 1791], by original designation.

 

artifex (Christ)

Vespa artifex surinamensis Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 226, pl. 20 - gSurinamh (type lost).

Vespa chartaria Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 687 - gde Cayenne & de Surinamh (type lost). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 114 (syn.: Vespa nidulans Fabricius; designated as type of Epipona).

Vespa nidulans Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 271 - [French Guiana] gCajennaeh (? Paris). - Coquebert, 1799, Illus. Icon. Ins.: 24, pl. VI fig. 3A. - Latreille, 1829, Crust. Arach. Ins. 2: 339. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (note on type).

Epipona nidulans; Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 365; 1809, Gen. Crust. Ins. 4: pl. XIV fig. 6; 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 316 (compared to Polistes lecheguana n. sp.). - Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (Epipone [!]; syn.: E. chartaria gLat.h).

Vespa chartifex Vallot, 1802, Concord. Syst.: 171 - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (type lost).

Epipona chartaria; Latreille, 1804, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 102, pl. XIV figs. 6-7; 1805, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 349, pl. CII figs. 6-7 (Epipone [!]). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 114 (syns.: V. nidulans Fabricius, V. artifex surinamensis Christ, V. chartifex Vallot, C. tuberculatus Cameron; Guyana; Brazil; Bolivia).

Polistes nidulans; Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172. - Guérin, 1844, Icon. Règne Anim. Ins., Atlas: pl. 72, fig. 7.

Chartergus nidulans; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 546.- White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 315.

Chartergus chartarius; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 217 (key), 220 (syns.: V. artifex surinamensis Christ, V. chartifex Vallot, V. nidulans Fabricius). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 34 (key), pl. XIII fig. 6. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 328 (key), 334 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 156 (compared to tuberculatus n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484 (syns.: V. artifex surinamensis Christ, V. nidulans Fabricius, V. chartifex Vallot, C. globiventris de Saussure, C. tuberculatus Cameron; female, male; French Guiana; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274 (list); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Chartegus [!]; Venezuela). - Machado and Hebling, 1972, in C. da Cruz-Landim et al., Homenagem à Warwick E. Kerr: 199-204 (caste polymorphism). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132 (key), 134, fig. 68. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (Brazil), 36 (Chatergus [!]; distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30, fig. - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest association with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia rejecta, P. singularis, Synoeca virginea, and Icteridae).

Chartergus tuberculatus Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 155, male - gRio Branco, Obidos, Brazilh (London).

Chartergus artifex; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 8.

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Monagas; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza*; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina*; Bolivia: Beni; Paraguay.

 

globiventris de Saussure

Chartergus globiventris de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 221, pl. XXXI fig. 3, female - gLe Brésilh (London). - Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 258 (? var. of chartarius). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (male; Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 328 (key), 334, pl. 2 fig. 7 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 156 (compared to tuberculatus n. sp.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132 (key), 134, fig. 69. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30, fig.

Chartergus chartarius var. globiventris; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484, fig. 5.

Epipona globiventris; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 115 (Brazil).

Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão; Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará.

 

metanotalis Richards

Chartergus metanotalis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 132 (key), 135, fig. 70, female, male - gBRAZIL: MT, base camp, 1250'S, 5147'Wh (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from elsewhere in Mato Grosso, Goiás, Acre, Pará; and Ecuador. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30, fig.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará.

 

 

Genus Clypearia de Saussure

 

Clypearia de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 165, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.

Type species: Polistes apicipennis Spinola, 1851, by monotypy.

Occipitalia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 11, 198, genus.

Type species: Polybia sulcata de Saussure, 1854, by original designation.

Occiitalia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 16.  Incorrect spelling of Occipitalia Richards.

 

angustior Ducke

Clypearia angustior Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6, female - gdans un wagon du chemin de fer central du Brésil, á la station de Cedofeita, dans une région assez chaude de l'Etat de Minas Geraesh (Paris); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484 (key), 485 (female; Brazil). - Araujo, 1951, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro 42: 50, figs. 1-8 (male; nest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 194, fig. 82. - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 162-163.

Distr.: Brazil: Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo.

 

apicipennis (Spinola)

Polistes apicipennis Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 59, female - [Brazil:] gParah (Torino).

Polybia apicipennis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 166, pl. XVIII fig. 6 (in subgenus Clypearia). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 341, pl. 1 fig. 4 (nest; Brazil);

Clypearia apicipennis; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 16; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 669. - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (compared to Polybia (Clypearia) fulvotincta n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 484 (key), 485, fig. 6 (female; Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193, fig. 6. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Jeanne, 1980, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 101 (ethology). - Jeanne et al., 1983, Zoomorphol. 103 (sternal glands). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 160, 162 (male genitalia; nest).

Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Pará.

 

duckei Richards

Clypearia duckei Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 196, female, male - gBRAZIL: AC, Cruzeiro do Sulh (holotype female London); also from Amazonas, Pará; and Ecuador. - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 161, 162-163, fig. 2 (male genitalia; larva; nest; ethology).

Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará.

 

humeralis Richards

Clypearia humeralis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 192 (key), 195, female - gBRAZIL: Mato Grosso ... 1250'S, 5147'Wh (London).

Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso.

 

naumanni Richards

Clypearia naumanni Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 197, female - gPANAMA: Csnsl [Canal] zone, Barro Colorado Is.h (London).- Snelling, 1983, Pan-Pacif. Entomol. 59: 275 (Costa Rica; Mexico). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 159, 160 (male genitalia). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Veracruz; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Magdalena, Meta.

 

nigrior Richards

Clypearia nigrior Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 193 (key), 195, female - gBRAZIL: Acre, Cruzeiro do Sulh (Curitiba). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material).

Distr.: Brazil: Acre.

 

sulcata (de Saussure)

Polybia sulcata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 175, pl. XXII fig. 4, female (in division Iota) - gLe Brésilh (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 16 (compared to P. aequatorialis n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 510 (female; Brazil). - Hamilton, 1972, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 225 (ethology).

Clypearia sp.; Evans and West-Eberhard, 1970, Wasps: fig. 92 (nest).

Occipitalia sulcata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 198 (key), 199. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1985, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 29: 185, figs. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 1314, 16. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology).

Clypearia sulcata; Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 157-164, fig. 1 (male genitalia; larva; nest; phylogeny; ethology; Peru).

Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Venezuela; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia.

 

weyrauchi Richards

Clypearia weyrauchi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 192 (key), 196, fig. 83, female - gPERU: Huánuco, Rio Huallaga, Tingo Maria, 700 m (Cambridge); also from Loreto; Ecuador; Bolivia; Colombia. - Jeanne, 1979, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 87: 78-84 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 162-163 (nest).

Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba.

 

 

Genus Epipona Latreille

 

Epipona Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 364, genus (2 species).

Type species: gEpipona morio = Polistes morio Fabricius = Epipone tatua Lepeletierh [= Vespa tatua Cuvier, 1797; Vespa morio Fabricius, 1798, is a junior subjective synonym], by subsequent designation of Blanchard, 1840, Hist. Nat. Anim. Artic. 3: 394.

Epipone Latreille, 1805, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 349.  Incorrect spelling of Epipona Latreille.

Tatua de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 213.  Unnecessary replacement name for Epipona Latreille, 1802, incorrectly regarded as preoccupied by Latreille as a name for a section of the genus Odynerus Latreille.

Coloboclypeus Brèthes, 1926, Nunquam Otiosus (2) 5: 12, genus.

Type species: Coloboclypeus niger Brèthes, 1926, by monotypy.

 

guerini (de Saussure)

Tatua guerini de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 215, female - gLe Mexiqueh (Berlin, Genève, Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 116 (Mexico; Honduras; Costa Rica) [partim]. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 8 (notes on types).

Epipona guerini; ? Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Hunt et al., 1996, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 69(4): 362-369 (caste polymorphism). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 8. - Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 146 (key), figs. 3-4, 7.

Epipona quadrituberculata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 159 (key), 162, fig. 77 [misidentification]. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 8 (guerini sensu Richards a misidentification).

Epipona niger; Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco, Veracruz; Costa Rica; Venezuela: D. F.

 

media Cooper

Epipona media Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 143, 146 (key), female, male - gPERU: Loreto, Pucallpah (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Peru; Colombia; Ecuador; Brazil; Bolivia.

Distr.: Colombia: Guaviare, Putumayo, Cauca; Ecuador: Napo, Morona-Santiago; Peru: Loreto, Huánuco, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará, Goias; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

niger (Brèthes)

Coloboclypeus niger Brèthes, 1926, Nunquam Otiosus (2) 5: 13, female - [Colombia] gDe Fusagasugáh (Buenos Aires). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 162 (syn. of Epipona guerini [misidentification]). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9 (notes on type).

Epipona guerini; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 159 (key), 162, fig. 76 (syn.: Coloboclypeus niger). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (geurini [!]; morphology).  Misidentification.

? Tatua tatua; Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 80, 83 (Nicaragua).  Misidentification.

Epipona niger; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9. - Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 146 (key), figs. 1-2, 6, 12-13.

Distr.: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Nariño, Valle; Venezuela: D. F., Mérida, Zulia*; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Manabi, Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco.

 

quadrituberculata (Gribodo)

Tatua quadrituberculata Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 251, female - [Ecuador] gSarajacuh (Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 17 (gSarayacu (Pérou amazonien)h); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 489 (syn. of Tatua tatua (Cuvier)). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9 (notes on type).

Epipona quadrituberculata; Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 145 (key), figs. 5, 11 (Colombia; Ecuador).

Distr.: Ecuador: Pastaza, Orellana; Colombia: Putumayo.

 

tatua (Cuvier)

Vespa tatua Cuvier, 1797, Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris 1: 57, fig. 1, female, nest - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (? Paris). - White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 316 (syn.: Polistes morio (Fabricius)).

Vespa morio Fabricius, 1798, Suppl. Entomol. Syst.: 264 - [French Guiana] gCajennaeh (Kobenhavn). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9.

Epipona tatua; Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 365; 1805, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 13: 350 (Epipone [!]); 1809, Gen. Crust. Ins. 4: 141. - Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 540. -  Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 277 [partim]; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Mérida). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 159, fig. 75. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 104 (nest site), 106 (role in agriculture). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Cooper, 2002, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 138: 146 (key).

Polistes morio; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279. - Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172. - Latreille, 1829, Crust. Arach. Ins. 2: 339.

Chartergus morio; Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (syn.: tatua Cuvier).

Tatua morio; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 214, pl. XXXI fig. 1, pl. XXXII. - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 34 (key). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340 [Brazil:]. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox).

Tatua tatua; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82, pl. 6 fig. 1 (cat.; syn.: morio Fabricius). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 489 (syns.: T. quadrituberculata, Guerini de Saussure; female, male, nest; Mexico; Nicaragua; Belize; Brazil; French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 116 (Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Brazil; French Guiana; Trinidad; Peru) [partim].

Epipona morio; Theraulez and Bonabeau, 1995, J. Theor. Biol. 177: fig. 1d (nest).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Santa Cruz*.

 

 

Genus Leipomeles Möbius

 

Leipomeles Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 25, genus.

Type species: Leipomeles lamellaria Möbius, 1856 [= Polistes dorsata Fabricius, 1804], by monotypy.

Lipomeles Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 232.  Unjustified emendation of Leipomeles Möbius.

Marimbonda Richards, 1978, Social Wasps Am.: v, 10, 201, genus.

Type species: Marimbonda albogrisea Richards, 1978, by original designation.

 

albogrisea (Richards)

Marimbonda albogrisea Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 201 (key), 202, fig. 84, female, male - gBRAZIL: MT, base camp, 1250'S, 5147'Wh (holotype female Rio de Janeiro). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 5 (male genitalia).

Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso.

 

dorsata (Fabricius)

Polistes dorsata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 281 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71, species dubiae.

Polybia dorsata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 212, species dubiae. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae.

Leipomeles lamellaria Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 26, 35 (key), pl. XVII, female, nest - gBrasilienh (? Hamburg); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 8. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 536, fig. 17 (syn.: P. nana de Saussure; female, male, nest; Suriname; Brazil; Peru; Ecuador). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list).

Polybia nana de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 240, pl. 2 fig. 28, female (in division Alpha) - gBrésilh (Frankfurt). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 349. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9 (notes on types; syn. of dorsata Fabricius).

Lipomeles lamellaria; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81, pl. 5 fig. 7 (cat.).

Polybia lamellaria; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 357 (Brazil).

Polybia sulciscutis Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 215, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 214 (designation of lectotype).

Lipomeles [!] dorsata; Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 87 (syn.: lamellaria Möbius).

Protopolybia sulciscutis; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 132 (unrecognized species); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (unrecognized).

Leipomeles dorsata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 304. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 214, fig. 87. - Schremmer, 1983, Zool. Anz. 211: 95-107 (nest); 1986, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 9 (syn.: Polybia nana de Saussure). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 4 (male genitalia).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, Pando.

 

pusilla (Ducke)

Chartergus pusillus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 336, female - [Brazil:] gBelem do Paráh (lectotype Paris); also from Oyapoc. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 202 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on types).

Parachartergus pusillus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 15; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 667; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 159 (key); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 530.

Pseudopolybia pusilla; Ducke, 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 319, 327; 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 349. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113.

Marimbonda pusilla; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 201 (key), 202, fig. 84. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list).

Distr.: Peru*: Huánuco; Brazil: Amapá, Pará.

 

spilogastra (Cameron)

Polybia spilogastra Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 213, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 215 (syn. of L. nana [misidentification]).

Pseudopolybia pusilla; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 298 (key), 299. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 85.  Misidentification.

Leipomeles nana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 214 (key), 215 (syn.: Polybia spilogastra Cameron) [misidentification]. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9 (nana sensu Richards a misidentification).

Leipomeles spilogastra; Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 9.

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo*; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas.

 

 

Genus Metapolybia Ducke

 

Metapolybia Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 7, 10, 17, genus.

Type species: Polybia pediculata de Saussure, 1854 [= Eumenes cingulata Fabricius, 1804], by monotypy.

 

acincta Richards

Metapolybia acincta Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 185, female - gSURINAM: Republiekh (Leiden); also from Peru. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Putumayo; list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on types).

Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Suriname; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Pará, Rondônia.

 

azteca Araujo

Metapolybia azteca Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66 (key), 79, figs. 7-9, female - gBasse-Mistèque, État d'Oaxaca, Rio Mariscala ... Méxicoh (lectotype São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 189 (designation of lectotype). - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 504, fig. 3.2 (Mexico: Jalisco). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Chocó; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 183 (compared to mesoamerica n. sp.). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on types).

Distr.: Mexico: Guerrero, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Veracruz; Costa Rica; Panama (?)*; Colombia: Chocó.

 

aztecoides Richards

Polybia pediculata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim].

Metapolybia aztecoides West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 254.  Nomen nudum.

Metapolybia aztecoides Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 189, female, male - gCOLOMBIA: Valle, Anchicayáh (holotype female London); also from Boyacá, Cauca, Nariño; Panama; Venezuela; Nicaragua; Ecuador; Peru. - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171 (nesting associations). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Veracruz; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Cauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Mérida, Zulia; Trinidad; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha, Zamora-Chinchipe; Peru: Junín; Brazil: Mato Grosso, Pará, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

bromelicola Araujo

Metapolybia bromelicola Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66 (key), 80, figs. 10-12, pl. 13 fig. B, pl. 14 fig. G, female, male - [Brazil:] gItatiaia, Est. do Rio de Janeiro; alt. 700 mh (São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 191 (gHolotypeh male Inst. Biol., São Paulo). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia).

Distr.: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro.

 

cingulata (Fabricius)

Eumenes cingulata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 287 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn). - Schulz, 1912, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 88 (syn.: Metapolybia pediculata (de Saussure)).

Polybia pediculata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 205, female (in division My) - gLe Brésilh (London); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: pl. XXVI fig. 7. - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 19, 35 (key), pl. XI (nest; Brazil); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 6. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 341 (key) 349 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 86 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 209 (pedunculata [!]; Guyana).

Metapolybia pediculata; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 488 (syns.: P. suffusa Fox, T. decorata Gribodo; female, male, nest; Mexico; Brazil; Colombia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 9 (list).

Metapolybia cingulata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276. - Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66 [partim]. - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia scutellaris), 30, fig. (Paraguay).

Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Santander; Venezuela: Barinas, Falcón*, Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz.

 

decorata (Gribodo)

Tatua decorata Gribodo, 1896, Miscnea. Entomol. 4: 13 - gPevas (Amazonum Fl.)h [Peru: Pebas] (holotype female Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.).

Metapolybia cingulata; Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 66, pl. 13 figs. A, C, pl. 14 figs. E-F [partim].  Misidentification.

Metapolybia decorata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 186 (Paraguay). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 30 (Paraguay specimen misidentified).

Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

docilis Richards

Metapolybia docilis West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 263.  Nomen nudum.

Metapolybia docilis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 186, female, male - gCOLOMBIA: Valle, Anchicayáh (holotype female Washington); also Nariño; and Panama; Mexico; Peru; Bolivia; Brazil. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). - Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 183, fig. 1 (compared to mesoamerica n. sp.). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 108 (compared to silvicola n. sp.), 109 (compared to servilis n. sp.).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; French Guiana*; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo*; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando.

 

encantata Cooper

Metapolybia encantata Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107, figs. 1-4, female, male, nest - gCOLOMBIA: Amazonas, El Encanto (146fS 7315fW)h (holotype female London).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas.

 

mesoamerica Smethurst and Carpenter

Metapolybia mesoamerica Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 180, figs. 3, 5, female, nest - gCOSTA RICA: Rio Danta, 4 km W Guápilesh (New York); also from three other localities in Costa Rica; and Mexico; Panama.

Distr.: Mexico: Vera Cruz; Costa Rica; Panama.

 

nigra Richards

Metapolybia nigra Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 190, female - gSURINAM: Upper Corantijn Riv., Coeroenih (Leiden). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (gHolotype specimen was probably allocated but not labelled as such by Richardsh). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 10 (notes on probable type). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 108 (compared to silvicola n. sp.).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Suriname; French Guiana*; Brazil: Pará.

 

rufata Richards

Metapolybia rufata Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 190, female - gECUADOR: Napoh (Paris); also from Tena. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Cundinamarca; list). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107 (compared to encantata n. sp.), 108 (compared to silvicola n. sp.).

Distr.: Colombia: Cundinamarca; Ecuador: Napo.

 

servilis Cooper

Metapolybia servilis Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107, 108, figs. 5-6, female, male - gCOSTA RICA: Guanacaste, Las Juntas de Abangares, ... in disturbed, deciduous, dry forest, in entrance to abandoned gold mine, on beamh (holotype female London); also from Panama; Paraguay.

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Paraguay.

 

silvicola Cooper

Metapolybia silvicola Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 108, female - gCOLOMBIA: Amazonas, Calderón near Leticiah (London); also from Leticia; Putumayo; and Ecuador.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo.

 

suffusa (Fox)

Polybia suffusa Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 455, female - gBrazil ... Chapadah (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype).

Metapolybia pediculata var. rufopicta Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 488 - gBolivieh (Berlin). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276 (identical to types of suffusa Fox). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types; syn. confirmed).

Metapolybia suffusa; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276. - Araujo, 1945, Arq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 16: 74, figs. 1-3, pl. 13 fig. D (syn.: pediculata rufopicta Ducke). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 188. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia). - Smethurst and Carpenter, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 183, figs. 2, 4 (compared to mesoamerica n. sp.). - Cooper, 1999, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 135: 107 (compared to encantata n. sp.).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Maranhão, Mato Grosso*, Mato Grosso do Sul; Bolivia: Beni.

 

unilineata (R. von Ihering)

Polybia pediculata; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim].

Polybia pediculata var. unilineata R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 184, male, female - [Brazil:] gRio Juruá - Amazonash (lectotype female São Paulo). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 488. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 188 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types).

Metapolybia unilineata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 184 (key), 188. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (nest; Brazil); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox).

Distr.: Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Roraima.

 

 

Genus Nectarinella Bequaert

 

Nectarinella Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 107, subgenus of Chartergus sensu Bequaert [= Parachartergus von Ihering, 1904].

Type species: Nectarina championi Dover, 1925, by original designation and monotypy.

 

championi (Dover)

Nectarina championi Dover, 1925 (1924), Psyche 31: 305, fig. 1, female - gDavid, Chiriqui, Panamah (London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 215. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types).

Chartergus championi; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (in subgenus Nectarinella).

Parachartergus championi; Skutch, 1971, Nat. Costa Rica: 265, fig. (nest; Costa Rica).

Nectarinella championi; Schremmer, 1977, Entomol. Germ. 3 (4): 344-355, figs. 1-7 (nest; Colombia: Sucré). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 215. - Schremmer, 1986, Öko-L 8: 59, figs. 26-28 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586. - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 298 (key), fig. 2 (male; Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Sucré.

 

xavantinensis Mateus and Noll

Nectarinella xavantinensis Mateus and Noll, 1998 (1997), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 105: 45, figs. 1-2, female, nest - gBrazil: Novo São Joaquim (Mato Grosso ... Nova Xavantina region (1445fS, 5255fW)h (São Paulo). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): 298 (key), fig. 1 (male; Brazil: Mato Grosso).

Distr.: Brazil: Mato Grosso Norte.

 

 

Genus Parachartergus R. von Ihering

 

Parachartergus R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 128, genus.

Type species: Parachartergus bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, 1904 [= Chartergus griseus Fox, 1898], by monotypy.

Parachatergus H. von Ihering, 1927, Gesch. Atlant. Ozeans: 80.  Incorrect spelling of Parachartergus R. von Ihering.

 

amazonensis Ducke

Parachartergus amazonensis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13, female, nest - [Brazil:] gau fleuve Japurá (Haut Amazone)h (lectotype London); also from Teffé. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 211 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Nariño; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key); 124 (notes on types).

Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. amazonensis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 159 (syn.: Chartergus flavofasciatus Cameron); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 533 (nest; Brazil).

Chartergus fulgidipennis var. amazonensis; Bequaert, 1938,  Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (doubtfully distinct from typical fulgidipennis).

Parachartergus fulgidipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210 [misidentification]. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11-12 (fulgidipennis sensu Richards a misidentification). 124 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 124 (provisionally placed with amazonensis).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba*.

 

apicalis (Fabricius)

Vespa apicalis Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 260 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn).

Chartergus ater Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 546, female - gsans indication de patrieh (? Torino).

Polistes apicalis; Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 323 (Brazil).

Chartergus apicalis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 217 (syn.: Chartergus ater Lepeletier; Bolivia; Brazil; French Guiana; Mexico); 1858, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XIX bis. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 84 (syn.: ater Lepeletier; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 150 (Belize). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 107 (syn.: Chartergus ater Lepeletier; Mexico; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219 (Guyana).

Parachartergus apicalis; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13 (nest); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 605; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 534 (syns.: C. ater Lepeletier, C. fraternus Gribodo, C. concolor Gribodo; female, ethology; parasite: Seminota mexicana Cresson (Trigonalyidae); Mexico; Brazil; Paraguay) [partim]. - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): pl 1 fig. 3 (nest). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303 (records from Guianas may be fraternus). - Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 266 (key), 268, figs. 1-4. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 204 (key), 207, fig. 85. - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 506, figs. 3.4, 6.4. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Ladron De Guevara et al., 1995, Amino Acids 9 (2): 161-173 (amino acid content). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Dejean et al., 1998, Sociobiol. 32: 477-487 (ethology; Mexico). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 7 (male genitalia).

Distr.: Mexico: Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Ecuador.

 

apicaloides Willink

Parachartergus apicaloides Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 271, figs. 5-9, female, male - gR. Papagaio, Guerrero, Méjicoh (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Guerrero; and Jalisco; Colima. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 205 (key), 207. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit.

 

aztecus Willink

Parachartergus aztecus Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 281, fig. 20, female, male - gMéjico: N. Yucatánh (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Yucatán; and Tabasco; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 205 (key), 207. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Tabasco, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Costa Rica.

 

colobopterus (Lichtenstein)

Vespa coloboptera Lichtenstein, 1796, Cat. Mus. Zool. Dit. Hamburgi ... Sect. Tertia Ins.: 202 - gSurinamoh (type lost). - Weber, 1801, Observ. Entomol.: 102. - Kerzhner, 1994, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 51 (2): 111, 112, 113 (proposed conservation). - Opinion 1820, 1995, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 52: 283 (available under the plenary powers of the ICZN).

Chartergus colobopterus; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 216 (key), 218, pl. XXXI fig. 2 (Colombia). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 20, 35 (key), pl. XII (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (attributed to Weber; Colombia; Venezuela; Trinidad).

Chartergus globiventris; Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: pl. 6 fig. 6.  Misidentification.

Parachartergus colobopterus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13 (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 533 (female, nest; Colombia; Venezuela; French Guiana). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela: Aragua). - Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Trujillo). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela localities). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 212. - Schremmer, 1978, Entomol. Germ. 4: 356-367 (nest); 1978, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Queller et al., 1988, Science 242: 1155-1157 (genetics). - Strassmann et al., 1990, Biotropica 22: 324-327 (ethology). - Gastreich et al., 1990, Anim. Behav. 40: 598-601 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Strassmann et al., 1991, Anim. Behav. 42: 461-470 (ethology). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Jeanne and Keeping, 1995, J. Ins. Behav. 8 (4): 433-442 (colony defense). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 459-461(genetics). - Goodnight et al., 1996, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 8:191-198 (ethology). - Strassmann et al., 1997, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40: 71-77 (ecology). - Strassmann et al., 1997, Proc. R. Soc. London (Ser. B) 264: 1565-1570 (ethology). - Strassmann et al., 1998, Mol. Ecol. 7:709-718 (ethology). - Ezenwa et al., 1998, Ins. Soc. 45: 445-455 (ethology). - Solís et al., 1998, Behav. Ecol. 9:172-176 (ethology). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 122 (type is lost).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Bolívar, Guajira, Magdalena, Tolima; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, D. F., Falcón, Guárico, Miranda, Trujillo; Trinidad; French Guiana; Brazil: Pará, Rondônia.

 

flavofasciatus (Cameron)

Chartergus flavofasciatus Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 381, female - [Brazil:] gRio Jutahi, Amazoniah (lectotype London). - Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 159 (syn. of Parachatergus fulgidipennis var. amazonensis Ducke). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 210 (designation of lectotype).

Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. flavofasciatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 533 (Brazil).

Chartergus fulgidipennis var. flavofasciatus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (perhaps not distinct from typical fulgidipennis).

Parachartergus flavofasciatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key), 124 (Peru; gThe every largef P. fulgidipennis recorded by Richards from Atalaya is this speciesh).

Distr.: Peru: Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas.

 

fraternus (Gribodo)

Chartergus apicalis; ? Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 21, 35 (key), pl. XIII figs. 1-5 (nest; Brazil); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 7. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil) [misidentification].. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox).

Chartergus fraternus Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 255 - [French Guiana] gCaiennah (lectotype female Genova); also from Brazil. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 328 (key), 334, pl. 2 fig. 8 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 108 (typical fraternus; Colombia; Venezuela; Brazil; Bolivia). - Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 277-279 (designation of lectotype).

Chartergus concolor Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 257, female - gMerida (Venezuela)h (Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333 (nest; Brazil).

Parachartergus apicalis var. fraternus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 534, fig. 16 (Brazil).

Parachartergus apicalis var. concolor; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 534 (Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry).

Chartergus fraternus var. concolor; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109 (Panama; Colombia; Trinidad; Guayana; French Guiana; Brazil).

Parachartergus fraternus; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303 (typical form); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela localities). - Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 268 (key), 277, figs. 13-14. - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 208 (syn.: P. pseudopicalis [!] var. hialinipennis Willink; Paraguay). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 31, fig. (Paraguay record requires confirmation).

Parachartergus fraternus var. concolor; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 303; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela localities).

Parachartergus pseudapicalis hialinipennis Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 288, female - gDiamantina, Est. de Minas Geraes, Brasilh (London).

Parachartergus pseudopicalis [!] var. hialinipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 208 (syn. of P. fraternus (Gribodo)).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Santander, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar, Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Pando; Argentina: Misiones.

 

fulgidipennis (de Saussure)

Chartergus fulgidipennis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 218, pl. XXXI fig. 5 - gLe Parah (holotype female London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109, 110 (typical fulgidipennis).

Parachartergus bentobuenoi; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13.  Misidentification.

Parachartergus fasciipennis Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 665, female - [Brazil:] gArrayollos ... Tabatinga, Estado do Amazonash (Paris); 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (key), 212. - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (designation of lectotype; syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure).

Pseudochartergus [!] fulgidipennis; Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syns.: C. griseus Fox, P. bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, P. fasciipennis Ducke).

Parachartergus fulgidipennis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 533 (syns.: C. griseus Fox, P. bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, P. fasciipennis Ducke; male; Brazil). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (note on type). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key), 124, fig. 3 (color variation; Colombia; Ecuador; Bolivia).

Chartergus fulgidipennis var. fasciipennis; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109 (key), 110 (Guyana).

Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. fasciipennis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 303.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba.

 

griseus (Fox)

Chartergus griseus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 458, 459, female - [Brazil:] gSantarémh (lectotype Pittsburgh); also from Mararú. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333 (Brazil); 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (designation of lectotype).

Parachartergus bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 129, 239 (nest), pl. IV fig. 7, pl. V fig. 2, female, male - [Brazil:] gRio Juruá - Amazonash (lectotype female São Paulo). - Ducke, 1907, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 2: 141 (syn. of fulgidipennis de Saussure). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 213 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 11 (notes on types).

Parachartergus griseus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 83; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (key), 213. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key; Bolivia), 125 (? Colombia). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 6 (male genitalia).

Chartergus trichiosomus Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London).

Chartergus fulgidipennis var. griseus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 109 (key), 110 (syns.: P. bentobuenoi R. von Ihering, C. trichiosomus Cameron; Guyana; Peru; Brazil).

Parachartergus fulgidipennis var. griseus; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 303.

Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo (?), Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana*; Peru (?); Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Pando.

 

lenkoi Richards

Parachartergus lenkoi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (key), 213, female - gBRAZIL: MT, Utiaritih (São Paulo); also from Amazonas; and Bolivia. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (note on type). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123 (key; Bolivia).

Distr.: Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: La Paz, Beni.

 

pacificus Cooper

Parachartergus pacificus Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 121, 122 (key), female, nest - gCOLOMBIA: Nariño, Barbacoas (50m)h (London).

Distr.: Colombia: Nariño.

 

pseudapicalis Willink

? Parachartergus apicalis; Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Brazil).

Parachartergus pseudapicalis Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 285, figs. 10-12, female, male - gBrasil, Tejuca, Rio de Janeiroh (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Rio de Janeiro; and Pernambuco; Bahia; São Paulo; Santa Catarina; Paraguay; Argentina. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210 (syn.: P. fraternus var. beniensis Willink). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 31, fig. (Paraguay).

Parachartergus fraternus beniensis Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 281, female - gBolivia: Rurrenabaque (Beni)h (Cambridge).

Parachartergus fraternus var. beniensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 210 (syn. of P. pseudapicalis Willink).

Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz; Paraguay: Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones.

 

richardsi Willink

Parachartergus fraternus; Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 81, pl. 4 figs. 30-33 [partim].

Parachartergus richardsi Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 268 (key), 289, figs. 16-19, female - gGuyana Británico, Kaietur, Savannahh (London); also from elsewhere in Guyana; and Suriname; French Guiana. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 210. - Schremmer, 1978, Entomol. Germ. 4: 356-367 (ethology); 1986, Öko-L 8: 49-59 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 123, fig. 2 (Bolivia).

Distr.: Colombia: Arauca, Caldas, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Putumayo; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

smithii (de Saussure)

Chartergus smithii de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 216 (key), 219, male - gLe Brésilh (London). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (Smithi [!]; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (typical form; Belize; Costa Rica; Colombia; Ecuador; Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 220 (note on material seen by Fox).

Chartergus fasciatus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 457, female - gBrazil ... Mararuh (Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 324, 327 (key), 333 (Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 221 (syn. of P. smithii (de Saussure)).

Parachartergus colobopterus var. Smithi; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13.

Parachartergus colobopterus var. fasciatus; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13.

Parachartergus Smithii; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 534 (syn.: C. fasciatus Fox; female, male; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 302 (key), 303. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 211. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Antioquia, Caquetá, Magdalena, Putumayo, Santander del Sur; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 122 (holotype is possibly undescribed male of colobopterus (Lichtenstein)).

Chartergus smithii var. fasciatus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 111 (Brazi: Minas Gerais).

Distr.: Belize; Costa Rica; Colombia: Antioquia, Caquetá, Magdalena, Putumayo, Santander del Sur; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni.

 

tomentosus Willink

Parachartergus aztecus tomentosus Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 284, female, male - gSan Salvador (América Central)h (holotype female Washington).

Parachartergus tomentosus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 208.

Distr.: El Salvador.

 

wagneri du Buysson

Parachartergus wagneri du Buysson, 1904, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1904: 145, female - gBrésil: État de Rio Janeiro, montagnes des Orgues, environs de la Tijuca, 500m à 1000mh (Paris). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 13; 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 528 (key), 534 (Brazil). - Zikán, 1935, Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. 1 (3): pl 1 fig. 4 (nest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 206 (key), 212. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 122, fig. 1.

Chartergus wagneri; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 110 (Brazil).

Distr.: Peru (?); Brazil: Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo.

 

weyrauchi Willink

Parachartergus weyrauchi Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 274, fig. 15, female, male - gPerú: Oxapampa, 1.600 mh (holotype female London); also from Junín. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 204 (key), 207 (syn.: P. weyrauchi var. decipiens Willink). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Parachartergus weyrauchi decipiens Willink, 1959, Acta Zool. Lill. 17: 263, 267 (key), 277, female - gDivisoria, Cordillera Azul, Perú, 1.300 m s.n.m.h (Cambridge).

Parachartergus weyrauchi var. decipiens; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 207 (syn. of P. weyrauchi Willink).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz.

 

 

Genus Polybia Lepeletier

 

Subgenus Alpha de Saussure

 

Alpha de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 167, division I of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (8 species); at plates 21 and 22: division of genus Polybia.

Type species: Polybia bifasciata de Saussure, 1854, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 99.

Hypopolybia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 34, 52, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.

Type species: Polybia bifasciata de Saussure, 1854, by original designation.

 

bifasciata de Saussure

Polybia bifasciata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 172, pl. XXII fig. 3, female (in division Alpha) - gLe Brésilh (Paris). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil; syn.: quadricincta de Saussure); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 509 (syns.: P. cordata Smith; female, male, nest; Mexico; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300 (key), 301 (typical bifasciata; Guyana; Peru); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 283 (typical bifasciata). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 53 (? syn.: heydeniana; in subgenus Hypopolybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Polybia heydeniana de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 241, female (in division Iota) - gBrésilh (Frankfurt). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540 (? syn. of signata). - - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 53 (? syn. of bifasciata). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types; syn. confirmed).

? Polybia Theresiana Schulz, 1904 (1903), Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 48: 257, female (in division Jota) - gAd flumen Magdalenae, reipublicae Columbianae, inter 'Bodega central et Honda'g (München). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 13. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 501 (syn. of simillima Smith).

Polybia bifasciata var. heydeniana; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (syn.: P. theresiana Schulz; Brazil; Peru; Colombia; Panama).

Distr.: Costa Rica*; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Junín, Loreto, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

signata Ducke

Polybia decorata Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 19, female - [Brazil:] gTabatinga (Haut Amazone)h (lectotype female Paris) [non Polybia decorata Smith, 1857]. - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types).

Polybia signata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 510, replacement name for Polybia decorata Ducke, non Smith, 1857 (female, nest; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 281. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 53, fig. 48 (designation of lectotype of P. signata; in subgenus Hypopolybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Putumayo; list).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Putumayo; Venezuela: Amazonas; French Guiana; Suriname; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Espírito Santo.

 

quadricincta de Saussure

Polybia quadricincta de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 173, female (in division Alpha) - g? L'Amériqueh (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 54, fig. 47 (syns.: P. bifasciata var. restrepoensis, mellipennis, xanthopyga; in subgenus Hypopolybia). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Polybia cordata Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 129, female - gBrazil (Amazons)h (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

Polybia gbifasciata nov. var. restrepoensis Bequaerth Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73.  Nomen nudum.

Polybia gbifasciata nov. var mellipennis Bequaerth Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73.  Nomen nudum.

Polybia gbifasciata nov. var xanthopyga Bequaerth Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73.  Nomen nudum.

Polybia bifasciata var. quadricincta; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (Guyana; French Guiana; Trinidad; Venezuela; Colombia; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 283; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Amazonas).

Polybia bifasciata var. cordata; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (key), 302.

Polybia bifasciata var. (or subsp.) restrepoensis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300 (key), 302, female - gCOLOMBIA: Resrepo, Int. del Meta, 500 m.h (Cambridge); also from Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 54 (syn. of P. quadricincta de Saussure).

Polybia bifasciata var (or subsp.) mellipennis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300 (key), 303, female - gPERU: San Ramon, Valle Chanchamayo, 900 m.h (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 54 (syn. of P. quadricincta de Saussure).

Polybia bifasciata var (or subsp.) xanthopyga Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 301 (key), 302, female - gCOLOMBIA: Villavicencio, Int. del Meta, 450 m.h (Cambridge); also from Peru. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 54 (syn. of P. quadricincta de Saussure).

Polybia bifasciata quadricincta; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá).

Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Venezuela: Amazonas; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz.

 

Subgenus Apopolybia Richards

 

Apopolybia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps. Am.: v, 34, 49, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.

Type species: Polybia simillima Smith, 1862, by original designation.

 

jurinei de Saussure

Polybia jurinei de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 176, pl. XXII fig. 6, female (in division Iota) - gLe Brésilh (lectotype female London). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 194. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 350 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 510 (male, nest; Brazil; Ecuador).  - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 283. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 36 (key), 50, fig. 45 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Apopolybia; syn.: P. jurinei var. bonaerensis Brèthes). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 106 (role in agriculture). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Polybia Jurinei var. bonaerënse Brèthes, 1903, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Inst. Buenos Aires (3) 9 (2): 28 - gRep. Argentina ... Bahia Blancah (La Plata). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 510.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

simillima Smith

Polybia simillima Smith, 1862, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London (3) 1: 39, female - gPanamah (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 501 (syn.: P. theresiana Schulz; female, male; Mexico; Colombia; Panama). - Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 726; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Barinas). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 36 (key), 49, fig. 46 (in subgenus Apopolybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 190 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Oaxaca; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Nariño; Venezuela: Barinas, Zulia; Ecuador: Guayas, Pichincha.

 

Subgenus Cylindroeca Richards

 

Cylindroeca Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 99, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier, 1836.

Type species: Vespa dimidiata Olivier, 1792, by original designation and monotypy.

Cyllindroeca Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 35.  Incorrect spelling of Cylindroeca Richards.

 

dimidiata (Olivier)

Vespa dimidiata Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (type lost).

Polybia dimidiata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 177 (in division Iota). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Zool. Anz. 27: 115 (ethology). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 491 (key), 506, fig. 8 (female, nest; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 211 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 285. - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil). - Maule-Rodrigues and Santos, 1974, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 18: 37-42 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 100 (in subgenus Cylindroeca). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Peru: Huánuco, Junín; Brazil: Amapá, Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz.

 

Subgenus Formicicola Richards

 

Formicicola Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 121, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.

Type species: Vespa rejecta Fabricius, 1798, by original designation and monotypy.

 

rejecta (Fabricius)

Vespa rejecta Fabricius, 1798, Suppl. Entomol. Syst.: 264 - [French Guiana] gCajennaeh (Kobenhavn).

Polistes rejecta; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 280.

Polybia rejecta; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 180, pl. XXII fig. 5, pl XXIX figs. 4-6 (in division Iota). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 10, 34 (key), pl. IV (nest; Brazil); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 5. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 352 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 16 (compared to P. aequatorialis n. sp.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 506 (syns.: P. bicolor Smith, P. litoralis Zavattari; female, male, nest; Mexico; Brazil). - Myers, 1929, Proc. Entomol. Soc. London 4: 84-86 (nests associated with birds, Cacicus haemorrhous L., and ants, Azteca chartifex laticeps Forel, in Guyana); 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 13 (nests associated with birds, Cacicus cela, ants, Azteca chartifex, and Apoica pallida and Polistes canadensis, in Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil, and Trinidad), 14 (nests associated with birds, Tyrannidae spp., in Trinidad and Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 280 (key), 285 (typical rejecta); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (Venezuela). - Hamilton, 1972, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 225 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 122 (in subgenus Formicicola). - Jeanne, 1978, Biotropica 10: 234-235 (nesting associations). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 216 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Joyce, 1993, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32 (2): 71-77 (nesting associations). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Dejean et al., 1998, Sociobiol. 32: 484 (Mexico). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest associated with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia singularis, Synoeca virginea, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae).

Polybia bicolor Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 131, female - gBrazil (Villa Nova)h (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 (syn. of rejecta).

Polybia rejecta race belizensis Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 151, female - gBelizeh (London). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types; syn. of rejecta Fabricius).

Polybia rejecta race javaryensis Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 - [Brazil:] gRio Javary, Amazonsh (holotype female London). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 285 (species of Mischocyttarus).

Polybia litoralis Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 12, female - [Panama; Ecuador] gPunta de Sabana e delle foreste del Rio Peripah (Torino).

Polybia rejecta var. belizensis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 508 (Central America; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 285.

Polybia rejecta var. litoralis; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 508 (Panama; Ecuador; Colombia). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 285.

Polybia rejecta rejecta; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá).

Polybia rejecta morph belizensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 122 (in subgenus Formicicola).

Polybia rejecta morph litoralis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 122 (in subgenus Formicicola).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Boyacá, Caquetá, Chocó, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolívar, Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Zulia; Trinidad, Tobago; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando.

 

Subgenus Furnariana Richards

 

Furnariana Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 120, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.

Type species: Polybia furnaria R. von Ihering, 1904, by original designation and monotypy.

 

furnaria R. von Ihering

Polybia furnaria R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 172 (key), 217, pl. VII fig. 13, female, male, nest - [Brazil:] gSantarém, Paráh (lectotype female São Paulo). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 515, fig. 10 (nest; Brazil). - Araujo, 1946, Rev. Bras. Biol. 6: 259, figs. 1-3. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 121 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Furnariana). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types).

Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Pando.

 

richardsi Cooper

Polybia richardsi Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129: 31, female, male - gCOLOMBIA: Amazonas, La Chorrerah (holotype female London); also from Putumayo; and Ecuador; Peru.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto.

 

Subgenus Myrapetra White

 

Myrapetra White 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 320, genus.

Type species: Myrapetra scutellaris White, 1841, by monotypy.

Myraptera Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 19: 256; White, 1844, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 268; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 192.  Incorrect spelling of Myrapetra White.

My de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 191, division IV of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (11 species); at pl. 23: division of genus Polybia.

Type species: Myrapetra scutellaris White, 1841, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 292.

Mi Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 76.  Unjustified emendation of My de Saussure, 1854.

Mu Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 292.  Unjustified emendation of My de Saussure.

 

aequatorialis aequatorialis Zavattari

Polybia aequatorialis Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 15, female - [Ecuador] gPunh (Torino). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 499 (female, male; Ecuador; Colombia). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 295 (key), 296, fig. 1D (Colombia; Ecuador). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - O'Donnell, 1996, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 38: 83-88 (ethology); 1996, J. Ins. Behav. 9: 159-162 (ethology).

Polybia aequatorialis var. (or subsp.) nigricans Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 296, female - gECUADOR: Baños, Tungurahua, 1600 to 1900 m.h (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 59 (gmorphh of typical form).

Polybia aequatorialis aequatorialis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 59 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Cauca, Cundinamarca, Meta; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Pichincha, Tungurahua; Peru: Huánuco.

 

aequatorialis tristis Bequaert

Polybia aequatorialis var. (or subsp.) tristis Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 296, female - gPANAMA: El Volcan, Chiriqui, 10,000 ft.h (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 59 (in subgenus Myrapetra).

Polybia aequatorialis; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama.

 

barbouri Bequaert

Polybia signata; Rau, 1933, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Col. Is.: 73, figs. 29-31.

Polybia barbouri Bequaert, 1943, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 394, fig. 1, female, male - gPanama: Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zoneh (holotype female Cambridge). - Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 111-116 (predation by Leptodon cayanensis; Costa Rica). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 59, fig. 53 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Valle; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Nariño, Valle.

 

belemensis belemensis Richards

Polybia belemensis Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 304, female - gBrazil: Pará, Belém, Utinga, forest roadh (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from elsewhere in Pará; and Suriname.

Polybia belemensis belemensis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 95 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list).

Distr.: Suriname; French Guiana*; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará, Roraima.

 

belemensis brevitarsus Richards

Polybia belemensis brevitarsus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 96, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gPANAMA: El Valleh (holotype female Washington); also from Costa Rica.

Polybia belemensis; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama.

 

bicyttarella Richards

Polybia bicyttarella Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 59, 132, figs. 11, 12a, 16b, female, male, nest - gBRITISH GUIANA: Mazaruni Station, clearingh (holotype female London); also from elsewhere in Guyana; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 62, fig. 55 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Meta; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil: Amazonas.

 

bistriata (Fabricius)

Polistes bistriata Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 281 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71, species dubiae (bistriatus).

Polybia oecodoma de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 195, female (in division My) - gLe Brésil. Bahiah (lectotype Paris); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 7. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 61 (designation of lectotype).

Polybia bistriata; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 212, species dubiae. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (? var. of Megacanthopus indeterminabilis).

Polybia pallipes; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim].  Misidentification.

Polybia infernalis; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451.  Misidentification.

Polybia mexicana; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 186, 251.  Misidentification.

Polybia occidentalis var. oecodoma; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 497 (nest; Brazil).

Polybia brunneiceps Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (bruneiceps [!], key), 213, female (London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 61 (effective designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types).

Polybia bistriata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key) 288; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Bolívar). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 61, fig. 54 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 106 (role in agriculture), 107 (prey: aphids). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217, 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Carpenter and Kojima, 2002, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110: 212, 213, figs. 6-10, 20-23 (compared to P. selvana n. sp.).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando.

 

catillifex Möbius

Polybia catillifex Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 16, 34 (key), pl. VIII, female, nest - gBrasilienh (Hamburg). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 498 (syn.: P. septentrionalis R. von Ihering; nest; Ecuador; Venezuela; Peru; Bolivia; French Guiana; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 367 (1910 Venezuelan record incorrect). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key), 288; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 60 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (catilifex [!]; list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Polybia septentrionalis R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 174 (key), 210, pl. VI fig. 10 - gPanamá ... Perú, Maracapatá  ... ; Bolivia; Venezuelah (São Paulo) [name for P. fasciata sensu Lepeletier, 1836, and de Saussure, 1854]. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 498 (syn. of catillifex Möbius). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (notes on types).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amazonas, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

diguetana du Buysson

Polybia occidentalis var. diguetana du Buysson, 1905, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1905: 9, female, male - gd'Oaxaca (Mexique)h (lectotype female Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 496 (Mexico). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 89 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types).

Polybia diguetana; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 138. - Snelling, 1970, Contrib. Sci. 137: 19. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 89, fig. 56 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171-173 (nesting associations). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Maes, 1992, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 19: 40 (Nicaragua: Zelaya). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: U. S. A.: AZ (Nogales); Mexico: Baja California, Chiapas, D. F., Guerrero, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Cauca, Chocó, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Bolívar*; Ecuador: El Oro, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, Pasco; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

dimorpha Richards

Polybia dimorpha Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 57, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gSURINAM: Zanderij savannahh (Leiden); also from Brazil; Peru; Ecuador; Colombia. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 34 (nest; resemblance to Polybia jurinei; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 162 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (note on type).

Distr.: Suriname; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Amazonas, Roraima.

 

divisoria Richards

Polybia divisoria Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 62, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gPERU: Huánuco, Cordillera Azul, Divisoria, 1300 mh (holotype female London); also from another locality in Huánuco; and Ecuador.

Distr.: Ecuador: Tungurahua; Peru: Huánuco.

 

erythrothorax Richards

Polybia scutellaris; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449.

Polybia erythrothorax Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 77, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gBRAZIL: MT, base camp, 1250'S, 547'Wh (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from other localities in Mato Grosso, and Pará, Goiás, São Paulo. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 42 (note on type material).

Polybia erythrogaster [!]; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox).

Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, São Paulo.

 

fastidiosuscula de Saussure

Polybia fastidiosuscula de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 197, female (in division My) - gLe Brésil. Capitainerie de Goyazh (lectotype Paris); 1855, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: pl. XXV fig. 4. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paulista 6: 210. - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 496 (key), 499 (syns.: P. buyssoni R. von Ihering, P. sampaioi Ducke; male, nest; Brazil; Bolivia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 58 (designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Agelaia multipicta), 35 (key, figs. 5a, 5b), 37 (Paraguay).

Polybia oecodoma; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449.  Misidentification.

Polybia Buyssoni R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 151 - [Brazil:] gPiquete (Est. S. Paulo)h (lectotype female São Paulo); also from Ypiranga. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8 (Brazil), 9 (compared to Monacanthocnemis buyssoni n. sp.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 58 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types).

Polybia Sampaioi Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8, female - [Brazil:] gCurityba (État de Paraná)h (lectotype Paris); also from São Paulo. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 58 (sampaioi; designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (sampaioi; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (note on lectotype; syn. of fastidiosuscula de Saussure).

Polybia fraterna gSauss. i. litt.h Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 [nomen nudum]; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 499 (syn. of Polybia fastidiosuscula var. Sampaioi).

Polybia fastidiosuscula var. Sampaioi; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 499 (Brazil; Paraguay).

Polybia fastidiosuscula var. Buyssoni; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 499 (Brazil), 521.

Polybia fastidiosuscula morph fastidiosuscula; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 58 (in subgenus Myrapetra).

Polybia fastidiosuscula morph sampaioi; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 58 (in subgenus Myrapetra).

Polybia fastidiosuscula morph buyssoni; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 37 (key), 58 (in subgenus Myrapetra).

Distr.: Colombia: Putumayo; Ecuador: Guayas, Pichincha; Peru: Cajamarca, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, San Martin, Tumbes; Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz; Paraguay: San Pedro, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa; Argentina: Corrientes, Misiones.

 

ficaria Richards

Polybia ficaria Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 80, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gPERU: Cajamarca, Celandin, 2600 mh (holotype male London).

Distr.: Peru: Cajamarca.

 

flavifrons barbatula Richards

Polybia flavifrons barbatula Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 98, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gPERU: Lambayeque, Olmos, near Chiclayoh (holotype female London); also from Cajamarca, Huánuco; and Bolivia.

Distr.: Peru: Cajamarca, Huánuco, Lambayeque; Bolivia: Cochabamba.

 

flavifrons flavifrons Smith

Polybia flavifrons Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 152, female - gVenezuela (Guayaquil)h [Ecuador] (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

Polybia saussurei Holmgren, 1868, K. Svenska Fregat. Eugenies Resa Omkring Jorden, Zool. 1, Ins., Hym.: 440 - [Ecuador] gCalifornia et Punah (lectotype female Stockholm). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? form of occidentalis). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 97 (designation of lectotype).

Polybia occidentalis var. flavifrons; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 286 [partim].

Polybia flavifrons flavifrons; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 97 (in subgenus Myrapetra).

Distr.: Ecuador: Esmereldas, Guayas, Loja, Manabi, I. Puná; Peru: Tumbes.

 

flavifrons hecuba Richards

Polybia parvula hecuba Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 102: 138, female - gBRAZIL: Theresopolish (London).

Polybia flavifrons hecuba; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 98 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Polybia flavifrons; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Caldas, Cauca, Putumayo; Venezuela; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Argentina: Misiones, Salta.

 

juruana R. von Ihering

Polybia occidentalis var. juruana R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 198 - [Brazil:] grio Jurúa, Amazonash (lecotype female São Paulo); also from Peru. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 496 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287 [partim]. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 147. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 79 (designation of lectotype).

Polybia juruana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 79 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Cundinamarca; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Cundinamarca; Peru: Cuzco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni.

 

nidulatrix Bequaert

Polybia nidulatrix Bequaert, 1933, in Rau, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Colorado Is.: 312, fig. 2, female - [Panama] gBarro Colorado Islandh (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 60 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Carpenter and Kojima, 2002, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110: 212, 213, figs. 1-5, 16-19 (compared to P. selvana n. sp.).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: I. Gorgona, Nariño; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Tungurahua.

 

occidentalis bohemani Holmgren

Polybia bohemani Holmgren, 1868, K. Svenska Fregat. Eugenies Resa Omkring Jorden, Zool. 1, Ins., Hym.: 441, female - [Panama] gIns. S:t Josephh (Stockholm). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (? Polybia, Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus).

Polybia spilonota Cameron, 1904, Invert. Pacif. 1: 68, female - gSan Marcos, Nicaraguah (lectotype London); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (spilopus [!]). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 69 (effective designation of lectotype; syn. of P. occidentalis bohemani). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types).

Polybia occidentalis var. spilonota; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287.

Polybia parvula pseudospilonota Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 28, female - gCosta Rica: Sarapiqui, La Virgenh (Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (syn. of P. occidentalis bohemani).

Polybia occidentalis invertita Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 30, female - gCosta Rica: Dint. di Cartago, 1500 m.h (Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (syn. of P. occidentalis bohemani).

Polybia occidentalis spilonota; Windsor, 1972, Biotropica 4: 1-3 (nesting associations; Costa Rica).

Polybia occidentalis bohemani; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 69 (syns.: P. spilonota, P. parvula pseudospilonota, P. occidentalis invertita; in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Polybia occidentalis; Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 111-116 (predation by Leptodon cayanensis; Costa Rica). - Gorton, 1978, Ins. Soc. 25: 197-204 (nesting associations). - ? Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 87 (Nicaragua). - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171-173 (nesting associations). - O'Donnell and Jeanne, 1995, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 68: 43-50 (ethology); 1995, Experientia 51: 749-752 (ethology). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica) [partim].

Distr.: Mexico; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Magdalena, Meta, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Miranda; Ecuador: Pichincha.

 

occidentalis cincta (Provancher)

Eumenes cinctus Provancher, 1888, Faune Canada Hym. Suppl.: 422, female - gTrinidadh (Laval Univ., Quebec).

Polybia occidentalis cincta; Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 163-164 (nest; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 70 (cinctus; in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (cinctus; coll. list).

Distr.: Venezuela: Zulia; Trinidad, Tobago; Guyana; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Pará.

 

occidentalis grenadensis Richards

Polybia occidentalis grenadensis Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 143, female - gGRENADA: St. Georgeh (London); also from Balthazar; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 70 (in subgenus Myrapetra).

Distr.: Grenada; Balthazar; St. Vincent (?).

 

occidentalis nigratella du Buysson

Polybia occidentalis var. nigratella du Buysson, 1905, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1905: 9, female - gMexique: environs d'Oaxacah (? lectotype Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 501. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (designation of lectotype; syn.: P. occidentalis nausicaa Richards). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (note on lectotype).

Polybia occidentalis nausicaa Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 140, female, male - gMEXICO: N. Yucatanh (holotype female London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (syn. of P. occidentalis nigratella).

Polybia occidentalis nigratella; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 68 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Rodriguez-Palafox, 1988, Fol. Entomol. Mex. 77: 500 (key), 514, figs. 3.1, 6.2; 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Polybia occidentalis; ? Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 87 (Nicaragua). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica) [partim].

Distr.: U. S. A.: AZ (Nogales); Mexico: Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, D. F., Durango, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama*.

 

occidentalis occidentalis (Olivier)

Vespa occidentalis Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (type lost).

Vespa pygmaea Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 283 - [French Guiana] gCajennaeh (holotype female Kobenhavn).

Polistes pygmaea; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 280. - Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (compared to Myraptera elegans n. sp.).

Myraptera [!] elegans Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 257, female - gBrazilh (type lost).

Polybia pygmaea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 193, pl. XXIII fig. 5 (female, male; in division My). - Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 137; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 17, 34 (key). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184 (Mexico).

Polybia occidentalis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 194 (female, male; syn.: M. elegans Curtis, possible var.: P. pygmaea; in division My). - du Buysson and Marshall, 1892, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 61: 59 (Venezuela). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (syn.: M. elegans Curtis; cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 198. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 349 (Brazil); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 654. - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 (Belize; Nicaragua; Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 16 (Ecuador; Venezuela). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 496 (syns.: P. pygmaea sensu de Saussure, P. parvula sensu de Saussure, P. oecodoma de Saussure, P. scutellaris sensu de Saussure, M. elegans Curtis, P. albopicta Smith, P. flavifrons Smith, P. ruficeps Schrottky, P. spilonota Cameron, P. fastidiosuscula var nigriceps Zavattari, mexicana sensu von Ihering; male, nest; Brazil; Mexico; Argentina). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 215 (Guyana). - Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 332. - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key), 286 (typical occidentalis); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (Venezuela localities). - Jeanne, 1978, Biotropica 10: 234 (nesting). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 104 (nest site), 106 (role in agriculture). - Queller et al., 1988, Science 242: 1155-1157 (genetics). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Queller et al., 1993. Behav. Ecol. 4: 7-13 (genetics). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Strassmann et al., 1998, Mol. Ecol. 7:709-718 (ethology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic), 36 (key, figs. 8a, 8c-d), 38 (Paraguay).

Polybia pygmaea var minor Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 166; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: pl. IX, nest - [Venezuela] gPuerto Cabelloh (? Hamburg).

Polybia pygmaea var major Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 166; ; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: pl. X, nest - gBrasilienh (? Hamburg).

Polybia albo-picta Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 131, female - gBrazilh (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 76 (albopicta; cat.). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 152 (syn. of occidentalis; Guyana); 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 156 (Brazil).

Polybia fastidiosuscula var nigriceps Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 16, female - [Ecuador] gGuayaquil, Vinces e Balzarh (lectotype Torino). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 286 (no more than individual variants of typical occidentalis). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 68 (designation of lectotype, as gholotypeh from gNICARAGUAh; syn. of P. occidentalis nigratella du Buysson).  REVISED SYNONYMY.

Polybia occidentalis var. albopicta; Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Monagas, Trujillo).

Polybia occidentalis occidentalis; Machado, 1977, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 6: 7-24 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 64 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Gobbi, 1984, Rev. Brasil. Entomol. 28: 451-457 (ethology). - Gobbi et al., 1984, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 13: 63-69 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Maes, 1992, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 19: 40 (Nicaragua: Zelaya).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas*; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Carabobo, D. F., Trujillo; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Ecuador; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Presidente Hayes, Central, Cordillera, Paraguarí, San Pedro, Amambay, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Itapúa; Argentina: Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Santa Fé.

 

occidentalis venezuelana Giordani Soika

? Polybia occidentalis var. juruana; Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 14 (nests associated with the bird, Synallaxis sp., in Venezuela). - Bequaert, 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (list).

Polybia occidentalis venezuelana Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 29, female - gVenezuela: I. Margaritah (Venezia); also from Guarico and Aragua. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 70 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 34 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.), 38; 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (note on type).

Distr.: Colombia: Arauca, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Guajira, Nariño, Putumayo; Venezuela: Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Guárico, Isla Margarita; Peru: Tumbes; Brazil: Roraima.

 

parvulina Richards

Polybia parvula; ? de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 196 (in division My). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 137. - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá).

Polybia diguetana; Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230.

Polybia occidentalis var. parvula; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (list).

Polybia parvulina Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 305, female - gGuyana: New Riverh (London); Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 39 (key), 96 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Mexico; Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Huila, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá (?), Amazonas.

 

paulista H. von Ihering

Polybia scutellaris var. paulista H. von Ihering, 1896, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 21: 160, female, male - gBrésilh (lectotype female São Paulo); 1896, Zool. Anz. 19: 450 (São Paulo). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 257. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 85 (designation of lectotype).

Polybia occidentalis var. scutellaris form paulista; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 498.

Polybia paulista; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 85 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Simôes and Mechi, 1983, Naturalia 8: 185-191 (ethology). - Gobbi, 1984, Rev. Brasil. Entomol. 28: 451-457 (ethology). - Gobbi and Machado, 1985, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 14: 189-195 (ethology). - Machado, 1985, Rev. Brasil. Zool. 2: 187-201 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Manzoli-Palma and Gobbi, 1994, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 23 (2): 291-298 (ethology). - Vitali and Machado, 1995, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 24 (1): 77-88 (flower visitation). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia scutellaris), 36 (key, figs. 8aa, 8cc-dd), 38 (Paraguay). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (notes on types). - Kudo et al., 2001, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 13: 351-360 (nest materials).

Distr.: Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo; Paraguay: Paraguarí, Canindeyú, Itapúa, San Pedro; Argentina: Corrientes, Misiones, San Juan.

 

platycephala platycephala Richards

Polybia occidentalis platycephala Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 43, 143, female, male - gBRITISH GUIANA: Mazaruni Station, clearingh (holotype female London); also from two other localities.

Polybia platycephala platycephala; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 90 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list).

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia.

 

platycephala sylvestris Richards

Polybia platycephala sylvestris Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 91, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gBrazil: MT, base camp, 1250'S, 5147'Wh (Rio de Janeiro); also from other localities in Mato Grosso, Goiás, Amazonas, Acre, Amapá, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, São Paulo; and Suriname; Peru. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Polybia platycephala; Garcete-Barrett, 2002 (2001), Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. 13: 48 (Paraguay).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo, Vaupés; Suriname; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Paraguay: Canindeyú, San Pedro, Alto Paraguay, Itapúa.

 

roraimae Raw

Polybia occidentalis subspecies AR 1; Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 34; 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 42 (habitat preference); 1992, Nature Dynam. For.-Savan. Boundaries: 510.

Polybia roraimae Raw, 1998, Maracá, Biodivers. Environ. Amazon. Rainfor.: 320.  Nomen nudum.

Polybia roraimae Raw, 2000 (1999), Rev. Bras. Zool. 16 (4): 987, 988, female, nest (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gDry evergreen forest, 4 km from the eastern end of the Ilha de Maracá, and 2 km north of the Maracá branch of the river Uraricoera, Roraima, Brazil (338fN and 6151fW)h (Manaus).

Distr.: Brazil: Roraima.

 

ruficeps asticta Richards

Polybia ruficeps asticta Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 76, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gBOLIVIA: Cochabamba, Yungas, Esp. Santoh (Washington).

Distr.: Bolivia: Cochabamba.

 

ruficeps ruficeps Schrottky

Polybia occidentalis var.; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449.

Polybia ruficeps Schrottky, 1902, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires (3) 8 (1): 116, female - gArgentinische ... Saltah (type lost?). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 36 (key, fig. 7b), 37 (Paraguay).

Polybia occidentalis var. ruficeps; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287.

Polybia occidentalis ruficeps; Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 138. - Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 137.

Polybia ruficeps ruficeps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 42 (key), 71 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list).

Distr.: Brazil: Ceará, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina; Bolivia: Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba; Paraguay: Alto Paraguay, Concepción; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Luis, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán.

 

ruficeps xanthops Richards

Polybia ruficeps xanthops Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 76, female, male (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gBRAZIL: MT, left bank R. Sucuriu, Três Lagoas, Faz. Canaah (holotype female São Paulo); also from Barragem de Ilha Solteira, and Ceará, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 42 (note on type material).

Distr.: Brazil: Ceará, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Norte.

 

scrobalis pronotalis Richards

Polybia scrobalis pronotatus West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 251.  Nomen nudum.

Polybia scrobalis pronotalis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 88, female (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gCOLOMBIA: Valle, Cali, 900 mh (London); also from another locality in Valle; and Ecuador. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo, Valle; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha; Peru: Pasco; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Pando.

 

scrobalis scrobalis Richards

Polybia scrobalis scrobalis Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 302, 303, female - gBrazil: Mato Grosso, 1249'S, 5146'W, gallery foresth (holotype female Rio de Janeiro); also from Acre; Pará; Amazonas; and Peru; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 86, 87 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago; Peru: Cuzco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, D. F., Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Chuquisaca, La Paz.

 

scrobalis surinama Richards

Polybia scrobalis surinama Richards, 1970, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Weten. (C) 73: 303, female - gSurinam: Coppername [Coppename] R., Voltz Mt.h (Leiden); also from elsewhere in Suriname; and Brazil; 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 40 (key), 88 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 163 (list).

Polybia scrobalis; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas.

 

scutellaris (White)

Myrapetra scutellaris White, 1841, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 322, pl. 4 figs. 1-3 (nest ), 4-7 - gbanks of the Rio Yancay (Uruguay?)h (holotype female London). - Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 258 (Myraptera [!]). - Lucas, 1885, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France, Bull. Entomol. (6) 5: liv (Myraptera [!]; nest; Uruguay).

Polybia scutellaris; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 192, pl. XXIII fig. 4 (female, male; in division My). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Zool. Anz. 27: 115 (ethology). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay); 1906, An. Cient. Paraguay (1) 6: 10 (mimicry). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 9 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 41 (key), 81, fig. 52 (in subgenus Myrapetra). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Cascone et al., 1995, Toxicon 33 (5): 659-665 (venom chemistry). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 35 (key, figs. 6a, 6d), 37.

Polybia occidentalis var. scutellaris; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 497 (nest; Brazil; Argentina; French Guiana) [partim]. - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 287. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 147.

Polybia scutellaris uruguayensis Giordani Soika, 1965, Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 95: 30, female - gUruguay: Buschental, S. Josèh (Paris); also from two other localities.

Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina*, São Paulo; Paraguay; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Mendoza, Misiones, San Juan, Santa Fé, Tucumán.

 

selvana Carpenter

Polybia selvana Carpenter, 2002, in Carpenter and Kojima, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 110: 212, 213, figs. 11-15, 24-45, female. male, larva, nest (in subgenus Myrapetra) - gCOSTA RICA, Heredia Prov., La Selva Biol. Sta., 3 km S Pto. Viejo, 1026fN 8401fWh (holotype female San Jose).

Distr.: Costa Rica.

 

Subgenus Pedothoeca Richards

 

Pedothoeca Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 113, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.

Type species: Polybia singularis Ducke, 1909, by original designation.

 

brunnea (Curtis)

Myraptera [!] brunnea Curtis, 1844, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 256, pl. XXXI figs. 8-10, female - gBrazilh (lectotype female London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 120 (designation of lectotype).

Polybia brunnea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 211, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (brunea [!]; cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 120 (in subgenus Pedothoeca).

Distr.: Brazil.

 

emaciata Lucas

Polybia fasciata; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 534 (syn.: Vespa fulvo fasciata DeGeer; French Guiana). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae.

Polybia fasciata de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 182, pl. XXIV fig. 6, female (in division Iota) - gPanamah (London) [non Olivier, 1792, treated by de Saussure as a synonym of P. phthisica]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 448 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 13 (syn.: P. septentrionalis R. von Ihering; Ecuador). - Cameron, 1906, Invert. Pacif. 1: 150 (Belize). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 513 (syns.: cayennensis sensu Moebius, emaciata Lucas, phthisica sensu du Buysson, fulvofasciata sensu Schulz, caementaria Ducke; nest; Panama; Venezuela; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 340. - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (note on type).

Polybia cayennensis [!]; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 131; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 11, 34 (key), pls. V-VI, VII fig. 9 (nest; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello).

Polybia emaciata Lucas, 1879, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (5) 9: 363, pl. 9 figs. 1-2, female - gBrésilh (? Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 280 (key), 281; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities). - Hebling and Letizio, 1973, Bull. Soc. Entomol. 7: 23-24 (caste polymorphism). - West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 256 (Colombia). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 117, fig. 61 (in subgenus Pedothoeca). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Strassmann et al., 1992, Am. Nat. 140: 363-372 (ethology). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list). - Strassmann et al., 1996, Mol. Ecol. 5: 461(genetics). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)).

Polybia phthisica; du Buysson, 1899, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France: 129.  Misidentification.

Polybia caementaria Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 348 (key), 355, female, nest - [Brazil:] gBelem do Pará, nas mattas, ... alto Purús (Estado do Amazonas)h (Bern, Paris, Belém). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (possible syntypes in Belém). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types).

Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Arauca, Caquetá, Cauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Barinas, Carabobo, Miranda, Portuguesa; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, D. F., Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, Pando; Paraguay.

 

singularis Ducke

Polybia emaciata; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 680, pl. 4 fig. 17, female, nest - [Brazil:] gObidos.h

Polybia singularis Ducke, 1909, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7: 627 (lectotype female London) [name for P. emaciata sensu Ducke, 1905]; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 512, fig. 9 (Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 280 (key), 288. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 45 (key), 114, fig. 63 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Pedothoeca). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest association with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia rejecta, Synoeca virginea, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco; Brazil: Amazonas, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia.

 

spinifex Richards

Polybia spinifex Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 38, fig. 62, 45 (key), 119, fig. 62, female (in subgenus Pedothoeca) - gSURINAM: Sarakreek, Afobakah (Leiden). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 105 (nest site; Brazil), 106 (role in agriculture), 107 (prey: Cirphis sp.). - Kojima and van Achterberg, 1997, Zool. Med., Leiden 71: 163 (list).

Distr.: Suriname; Brazil: Rondônia.

 

Subgenus Platypolybia Richards

 

Platypolybia Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 124, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.

Type species: Polybia incerta Ducke, 1907, by original designation.

Platycephala Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46.  Incorrect spelling of Platypolybia Richards.

 

incerta Ducke

Polybia incerta Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 175 (key), 179, female - gTeffé (Estado do Amazonas)h (lectotype São Paulo); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 500 (female; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 296 (key), 297 (Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 124 (designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types).

Polybia gweyrauchi nov. spec., Bequaerth Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 72.  Nomen nudum.

Polybia incerta var. (or subsp.) weyrauchi Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 298, fig. 1A-C, female - gPERU: Oxapampa ... at 1800 m.h (Cambridge); also from 1200 m.

Polybia incerta morph incerta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (incerata [!]; key), 125 (in subgenus Platypolybia).

Polybia incerta morph weyrauchi; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (key), 125 (in subgenus Platypolybia).

Distr.: Ecuador: Pastaza; Peru: Ayacucho, Huánuco, Junín, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz (?).

 

procellosa dubitata Ducke

Polybia theresiana ?; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5.

Polybia dubitata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 500, female - gObidosh (lectotype São Paulo); also from Belém, and Amazonas (Tabatinga). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 126 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on types).

Polybia procellosa var. dubitata; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 295, 297 (Guyana; Peru); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 288.

Polybia procellosa dubitata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (key), 126 (in subgenus Platypolybia). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (dubidata [!]; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Cochabamba.

 

procellosa procellosa Zavattari

Polybia procellosa Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 14, female - [Ecuador] gSan Joséh (Torino). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 500 (female; Ecuador). - Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 295 (key), 297, fig. 1E-F (Ecuador); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (key), 288 (typical procellosa).

Polybia procellosa procellosa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 46 (key), 126 (in subgenus Platypolybia). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo, Pichincha, Zamora-Chinchipe; Peru: Huánuco (?).

 

Subgenus Polybia Lepeletier

 

Polybia Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 533, genus (3 species).

Type species: Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Entomol. 34: 166.

Iota de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 174, division II of subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier (12 species); at plates 22 and 24: division of genus Polybia.

Type species: gPolybia liliacea (F.)h [= Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804], by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 33.

Jota Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 161; 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 76.  Unjustified emendation of Iota de Saussure, 1854.

Eupolybia Dalla Torre, 1904, Genera Insect. 19: 76, name for subgenus Polybia of genus Polybia Lepeletier in de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 167 (53 species).

Type species: Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 33, 46.

Iota Richards, 1978, Social Wasps Am.: 33, 46, in synonymy of Polybia Lepeletier.  Unjustified emendation of Jota Dalla Torre, 1894; unavailable under Article 11.6 of the Code; junior homonym of Iota de Saussure, 1854.

 

liliacea (Fabricius)

Polistes liliacea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 271 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn).

Polybia liliacea; Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 533 (French Guiana). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 174 (in division Iota; French Guiana) [partim]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 199. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 508 (female, male, nest; Venezuela; French Guiana; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 211 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 282; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (list). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 35 (key), 46, fig. 43 (in subgenus Polybia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33 (nest; Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42, 44 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Meta, Nariño, Vaupés; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni.

 

striata (Fabricius)

Vespa striata Fabricius, 1787, Mantissa Insect.: 288 - [French Guiana] gCajennaeh (Kobenhavn).

Polistes striata; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 271. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 72 (striatus; species dubiae).

Polybia liliacea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 174, pl. XXII fig. 7 [partim]. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 [partim]. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins.  Misidentification.

Polybia sycophanta Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 251, female - gMiarim (Brasile)h [Mearim] (Genova, Zürich). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 345 (key), 350 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 509 (female; Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (mimicry). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types).

Polybia striata; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 282 (syn.: sycophanta); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Táchira, Bolívar). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 35 (key), 47, fig. 44 (in subgenus Polybia). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 106 (role in agriculture). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 46 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Arauca, Boyacá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Bolívar, D. F.*, Táchira; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz.

 

Subgenus Synoecoides Ducke

 

Synoecoides Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 9, 16, genus.

Type species: Synoecoides depressa Ducke, 1905, by monotypy.

 

depressa (Ducke)

Synoecoides depressa Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 16, female - [Brazil:] gTeffé (Haut-Amazone) dans la forêth (Belém); 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 670; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 163, pl. 3 fig. 7 (nest), 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 489. - Zavattari, 1911, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 9: 343 (depressus; compared to Mocsáryi n. sp.). - Ducke, 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 331 (depressa; cat.). - Araujo, 1944, Rev. Bras. Biol. 4: 340, figs. 1-5 (depressus; male; distinction of mocsaryi doubtful). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 158 (depressus; syn.: mocsaryi Zavattari; Peru; Colombia). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 1 (depressus; designation of holotype as glectotypeh), 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (note on type). - Carpenter et al., 2000, Am. Mus. Novitat.3298: 1-24, figs. 1, 10, 21, 30, 43 (depressus; Synoecoides reduced to subgenus of Polybia).

Synoecoides Mocsáryi Zavattari, 1911, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 9: 343, female - gBrésil: Piauhyh [Piaui] (Budapest). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 158 (syn. of depressus).

Distr.: Colombia: Meta*, Nariño, Vaupés; Ecuador*: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Piaui; Bolivia*: Beni.

 

Subgenus Trichinothorax Carpenter and Day

 

Trichinothorax Carpenter and Day, 1988, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 90: 323, 327, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier, replacement name for Trichothorax Richards, 1978, non Montrouzier, 1860.

Type species: Vespa chrysothorax Lichtenstein, 1796, by original designation as type species of Trichothorax Richards.

Trichothorax Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: v, 35, 101, subgenus of Polybia Lepeletier.  Junior homonym of Trichothorax Montrouzier, 1860 (Coleoptera).

Type species: Vespa chrysothorax Lichtenstein, 1796, by original designation.

Trichthorax Snelling, 1981, Social Insects II (5): 416.  Incorrect spelling of Trichothorax Richards.

 

affinis du Buysson

Polybia flavitincta; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador).

Polybia affinis du Buysson, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 216, female - gGuyane française ... Saint-Jean-du-Maronih (lectotype Paris); also from three other localities in French Guiana. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 504 (female; French Guiana; Brazil; Ecuador). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 281. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 111 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (notes on types).

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia.

 

batesi Richards

Polybia batesi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 110, female (in subgenus Trichothorax) - gBRAZIL: Amazonas, Tefé (=Ega)h (London). - Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129.

Distr.: Peru: Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas.

 

chrysothorax (Lichtenstein)

Vespa chrysothorax Lichtenstein, 1796, Cat. Mus. Zool. Dit. Hamburgi ... Sect. Tertia Ins.: 203 - gAmericah (type depository unknown). - Weber, 1801, Observ. Entomol.: 103. - Kerzhner, 1994, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 51 (2): 111, 112, 113 (proposed conservation). - Opinion 1820, 1995, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 52: 283 (available under the plenary powers of the ICZN).

Polistes aurulenta Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 275 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn).

Polybia aurichalcea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 178, female (in division Iota) - gLe Brésilh (lectotype Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 108 (designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 12 (note on type).

Polybia tapajosensis Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 151, female - [Brazil:] gRio Tapajos, Amazonsh (London). -  Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541 (? Polybia, Stelopolybia or Megacanthopus). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 108 (syn. of P. chrysothorax (Lichtenstein)).

Polybia chrysothorax; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 178, pl. XXIV fig. 3 (syn.: P. aurulenta Fabricius; in division Iota; French Guiana; Brazil). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (syn.: aurulenta Fabricius; cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 203. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 351 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 504 (syns.: P. aurulenta Fabricius, P. aurichalcea de Saussure; male, nest; Colombia; French Guiana; Brazil). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210 (Guyana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 284; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 164-165 (nest; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 108 (syn.: P. tapajosensis; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Schremmer, 1986, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimic of Polybia sericea), 34 (key, figs. 4aa, 4bb, 4cc), 37 (Paraguay).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Magdalena; Venezuela: Barinas; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo; Paraguay: Concepción, Canindeyú; Boliva: Beni, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; Argentina: Jujuy.

 

eberhardae Cooper

Polybia eberhardae Cooper, 1993, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 129: 33, female, male - gECUADOR: Napo, Muyuna, 5 km west of Tena, 550 mh (holotype female London); also from four other localities in Ecuador; and Colombia; Peru; Brazil; Bolivia.

Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Valle (?), Vaupés; Ecuador: Morona-Santiago, Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz.

 

flavitincta Fox

Polybia flavitincta Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 452, female - [Brazil:] gSantaremh (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 185. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 113 (designation of lectotype, stated to be in Philadelphia; syn.: P. mediamericana; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (note on type series). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Polybia mediamericana Bequaert, 1933, in Rau, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Colorado Is.: 314, fig. 3, female - [Panama] gBarro Colorado Islandh (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 113 (syn. of P. flavitincta).

Distr.: Belize*; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Arauca, Huila, Meta, Nariño, Valle; Venezuela; Ecuador: El Oro, Esmereldas, Guayas, Pichincha, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

gorytoides gorytoides Fox

Polybia gorytoides Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 454, female - [Brazil:] gChapadah (lectotype Pittsburgh); also from Amazonas. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 494 (key), 509 (syn.: P. sculpturata Ducke; female, male, nest; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 [partim]. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list).

Polybia gorytoides gorytoides; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 102 (in subgenus Trichothorax).

Distr.: Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso.

 

gorytoides sculpturata Ducke

Polybia sculpturata Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 347 (key), 356, female - [Brazil:] gMacapáh (lectotype Belém); also from Pará; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 181 (syn. of P. gorytoides Fox). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 3 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (notes on types).

Polybia gorytoides sculpturata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 102 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Meta; Venezuela*; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Santa Cruz.

 

ignobilis (Haliday)

Polistes ignobilis Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 322, female - [Brazil:] gSt. Paul'sh (London).

Polybia atra; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 181, not pl. XXIV fig. 5 (female, male; in division Iota; syn.: P. ignobilis Haliday); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: VV, revised explanation of pl. XXIV fig. 1. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 351 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183 (Belize), 184 (Nicaragua). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 502 (syn.: P. nigra de Saussure; female, male, nest; Brazil; Colombia; Venezuela; French Guiana); 1913, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 332 (syn.: P. socialis de Saussure). - Hase, 1936, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin 1936: 1-51. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox).  Misidentification.

Polybia socialis; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: V, explanation of pl. XXIV fig. 1. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16.

Polybia nigra de Saussure, 1858, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: VV, revised explanation of plate, female (in division Iota) - gLe Brésilh (Paris). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 188. - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (Paraguay). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8 (Brazil), 11 (compared to P. deuteroleucus n. sp.); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.). - Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Monagas). - Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 71 (negra [!]). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types).

Polybia ignobilis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 723, fig. 1D-F; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 289; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities). - West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 256 (Colombia: Cauca). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (ignoblis [!]; key), 106 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Gobbi and Machado, 1986, An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 15 (Supl.): 117-124 (ethology). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1993, Bol. Mus. Entomol. Univ. Valle 1 (2): 7 (nest; Colombia: Boyacá); 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 34 (lignobilis [!]; key, figs. 3aa, 3cc), 37 (Paraguay).

Distr.: Belize; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Arauca, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Santander, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, D. F., Guárico, Monagas, Trujillo; Guyana; French Guiana; Peru: Amazonas, Cajamarca, Cuzco, Lambayeque, Loreto, Piura, Puno; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Asunción; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Misiones, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fé, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán.

 

lugubris de Saussure

Polybia lugubris de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 180, pl. XXIV fig. 2, female (in division Iota) - gLa Guyanneh (Paris). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 506 (female, nest; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 281 (Guiana locality doubtful). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 112 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list).

Distr.: Panama; French Guiana; Brazil: Espírito Santo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo.

 

micans Ducke

Polybia micans Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 347 (key), 351, female - [Brazil:] gAmapáh (lectotype Belém); also from Pará; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 505 (female, nest; Brazil; French Guiana). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 284 (typical micans). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 110 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 3 (designation of lectotype), 10 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; Colombia: Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types).

Polybia sericeibalteata Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 152, female - [Brazil:] gRio Purush (London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 541, species dubiae.

Distr.: Colombia: Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz.

 

minarum Ducke

Polybia minarum Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 8, female - [Brazil:] gBarbacenah (lectotype London); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 495 (key), 501 (female; Brazil; Paraguay). - Araujo, 1945, Rev. Bras. Biol. 5: 157, figs. 1-5. - Willink, 1952, Acta Zool. Lilloana 10: 130. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 105 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 34 (key, figs. 3a, 3c), 37. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 14 (notes on types).

Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones.

 

nigrina Richards

Polybia nigratella; Bequaert, 1943 (1942), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 50: 300. - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 136.

Polybia nigrina Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 105, female (in subgenus Trichothorax) - gMEXICO: N. Yucatánh (London); also from elsewhere in Yucatán, Veracruz. - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Veracruz, Yucatán.

 

punctata du Buysson

Polybia aurichalcea; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 181.

Polybia punctata du Buysson, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 216, female - gBrésil, Barbacenah (lectotype Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 504 (female; Brazil). - Araujo, 1950, Arch. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 19: 269, figs. 1-3, pls. 1-2. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 112 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 154 (note on lectotype).

Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo.

 

raui raui Bequaert

Polybia raui Bequaert, 1933, in Rau, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Colorado Is.: 309, fig. 1 A-D, female - [Panama] gBarro Colorado Islandh (Cambridge); 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 727. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Polybia raui raui; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 103 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Tabasco, Veracruz; Belize; Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Nariño, Putumayo, Valle; Venezuela: Falcón*.

 

raui taeniata Richards

Polybia raui taeniata Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 103, female (in subgenus Trichothorax) - gECUADOR: ? Napo, 'de Tandapi à Garretas'g (Paris); also from Pichincha.

Distr.: Ecuador: Napo (?); Pichincha.

 

rufitarsis peruviana Bequaert

Polybia grufitarsis nov. var. peruviana Bequaerth Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 72.  Nomen nudum.

Polybia rufitarsis var. (or subsp.) peruviana Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 729, fig. 1M-N, female - gPERU: Valle Chanchamayo, 1100 m.h (Cambridge); also from five other localities in Peru; and Ecuador; Bolivia.

Polybia rufitarsis peruviana; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 104 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo; Ecuador: Napo, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz.

 

rufitarsis rufitarsis Ducke

Polybia rufitarsis Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 351, female - [Brazil:] gItaituba (Rio Tapajoz)h (Belém); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 502 (female, nest; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 289 (typical form). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 3 (designation of holotype as glectotypeh), 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 15 (note on type).

Polybia rufitarsis var. rufitarsis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 728.

Polybia rufitarsis rufitarsis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 104 (in subgenus Trichothorax).

Distr.: Guyana; Brazil: Amazonas, Amapá, Pará.

 

sericea (Olivier)

Vespa sericea Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (type lost). - Latreille, 1824, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 11: 316 (compared to P. lecheguana n. sp.).

Polistes nigripennis Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 272 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 71 (species dubiae).

Rhopalidia rufithorax Lepeletier, 1836, Hist. Nat. Ins. Hym. 1: 539, female? - [French Guiana] gCayenne, Amérique méridionaleh (Torino?). - de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 179 (syn. of Polybia sericea (Olivier)).

Apoica cubitalis de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 109, pl. XVIII fig. 3, female - [Brazil:] gBahiah (Paris). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 79 (cat.). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 333 (syn. of P. sericea (Olivier)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 107 (notes on type). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 13 (notes on type).

Polybia sericea; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 179, pl. XXIV fig. 4 (in division Iota; syn.: R. rufithorax Lepeletier; Brazil; French Guiana). - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 8, 34 (key), pl. III (nest; Brazil). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (syn.: R. rufithorax Lepeletier; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 343 (key), 350 (Brazil); 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 492 (key), 503 (syns.: R. rufithorax Lepeletier, A. cubitalis de Saussure; male, nest; Brazil). - du Buysson, 1910, Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst. 29 (2): 232. - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210 (Guyana). - Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 15 (nest associated with unidentified bird in Venezuela). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 231 (Venezuela). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 278 (key), 284 (typical form); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 133 (Venezuela localities). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 107 (in subgenus Trichothorax). Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Jeanne and Castellón Bermúdez, 1980, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 53: 274 (interaction with male Mischocyttarus drewseni). - Jeanne, 1981, Anim. Behav. 29:102-113 (chemical communication); 1981, Acta Amazon. 11: 153-156 (trail pheromone). - Machado et al., 1988, Rev. Bras. Zool. 5: 261-266 (ethology). - Queller et al., 1988, Science 242: 1155-1157 (genetics). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 35 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Raveret-Richter and Jeanne, 1991, Ins. Soc. 38 (2): 139-147 (ethology). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 34 (key, figs. 4a, 4b, 4c), 37 (Paraguay).

Polybia melanocephala Cameron, 1906, Entomologist 39: 152 (in division gM.Yh) - [Brazil:] gRio Purus, Amazonsh (holotype female London). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 540, species dubiae.

Polybia nigriceps Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 210, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London) [non Zavattari, 1906]. - Myers, 1935, Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 83: 14 (nests associated with birds, Tyrannidae spp., in Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 263 (species of Mischocyttarus).

Polybia sericea var. nigripennis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 284; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 164 (nest; Guyana).

Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá, Magdalena, Meta, Vaupés; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Zulia; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Cajamarca, Cuzco, San Martin; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Paraná, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz, Santa Cruz; Paraguay; Uruguay; Argentina: Buenos Aires, Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, San Juan, Santa Fé.

 

tinctipennis nebulosa Bequaert

Polybia tinctipennis var. (or subsp.) nebulosa Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 728, female - gTRINIDADh (Cambridge); also from Guyana; and possibly Brazil; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 289; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 134 (Venezuela: Mérida).

Polybia tinctipennis nebulosa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 104 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; Colombia: Magdalena, Putumayo; list).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Colombia: Magdalena, Putumayo; Venezuela: Mérida; Trinidad; Guyana; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Pará (?).

 

tinctipennis tinctipennis Fox

Polybia tinctipennis Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 452, female - [Brazil:] gChapadah (lectotype Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 344 (key), 352 (Brazil); 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 502 (syn.: P. ypiranguensis R. von Ihering; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 279 (key), 289 (typical form). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 219 (designation of lectotype). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; Colombia: Vaupés; list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Polybia ypiranguensis R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 170 (key), 188, figs. 1, 3, female - gBrazilh (London, Washington).

Polybia tinctipennis var. tinctipennis; Bequaert, 1944 (1943), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 36: 727.

Polybia tinctipennis tinctipennis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 43 (key), 103 (in subgenus Trichothorax). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Vaupés; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni.

 

velutina Ducke

Polybia lugubris; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 682.

Polybia chrysothorax; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 12 (Ecuador).

Polybia velutina Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 171 (key), 180, female, male - [Brazil:] gRio Japuráh (lectotype female London); also from Teffé, Tabatinga; and Peru; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 493 (key), 505 (female, male, nest; Brazil; Ecuador). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 44 (key), 110 (designation of lectotype; in subgenus Trichothorax). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 358 (in subgenus Trichinotorax [!]; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 16 (notes on types).

Polybia micans var. velutina; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 284.

Distr.: Panama*; Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Bahia; Bolivia: La Paz, Pando.

 

 

Genus Protonectarina Ducke

 

Protonectarina Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 451, 477, genus.

Type species: Polybia sylveirae de Saussure, 1854, by monotypy.

 

sylveirae (de Saussure)

Polybia sylveirae de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 171 (sylveibae [!]), pl. XXII fig. 2, Errata: 256, female (in division Alpha) - gLe Brésilh (Paris). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). - R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 152 (nest; Brazil: São Paulo). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 127 (invalid designation of lectotype). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types).

Polybia Enxuy Smith, 1863, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London (3) 1: 511, female - gBrazilh (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (enxius [!]; cat.).

Protonectarina sylveirae; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 477 (syn.: Polybia enxuy Smith; female, male, nest; Paraguay; Brazil). - Araujo, 1946, Arq. Inst. Biol., São Paulo 17 (14): 229-238, pl. 15. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 127. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Dohtsu et al., 1993, Nat. Toxins 1 (5): 271-276 (venom chemistry). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 32, fig. (Paraguay).

Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Alto Paraná, Concepción, Alto Paraguay; Argentina: Misiones.

 

 

Genus Protopolybia Ducke

 

Protopolybia Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 7, 9, 17, genus (9 species, partly doubtful).

Type species: Polybia bella R. von Ihering, 1903, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 97.

Pseudochartergus Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 9, 15, genus (2 species).  Rejected by Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96:185, acting as first reviser.

Type species: Charterginus cinctellus Fox, 1898 [= Nectarina chartergoides Gribodo, 1891], by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 103.

 

acutiscutis (Cameron)

Polybia acutiscutis Cameron, 1906, Zeitschr. Syst. Hym. Dipt. 6: 385, female - gBritish Hondurash (London); 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 539 (probably var. of Protopolybia sedula).

Protopolybia pumila var. acutiscutis; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 123 (key), 125 (Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Brazil; Peru; Bolivia); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: (Venezuela: Mérida).

Protopolybia acutiscutis; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (key), 150. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 182, 184 (nest). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Caquetá, Cauca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo; Venezuela: D. F., Mérida; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz.

 

aliciae Silveira

Protopolybia aliciae Silveira, 2004, Zootaxa 598: 1, 2, figs. 1-3, female, nest - gBrasil, PA, Melgaço, Caxiuanã, ECFPn, 1:44 S / 51:28 Oh (Belem).

Distr.: Brazil: Pará.

 

alvarengai Richards

Protopolybia alvarengai Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 146, female - gBRAZIL: Rondônia, Pimenta Buenoh (Curitiba). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 43 (note on type material). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Nariño; list).

Distr.: Colombia: Nariño; Brazil: Rondônia.

 

amarella Bequaert

Protopolybia amarella Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 113, female - gBritish Guiana: Source of Essequibo Riverh (Cambridge); also from Colombia; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 266 (key), 267 (gnew speciesh), fig. 1. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 149. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Protopolybia g'mellea' Duckeh Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11.  Nomen nudum.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Guyana; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre; Bolivia: Pando.

 

bella (R. von Ihering)

Polybia bella R. von Ihering, 1903, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 72: 146 - gSurinamh (holotype female São Paulo); 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 177, pl. 4 fig. 5. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

Protopolybia bella; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 674, pl. 3 fig. 12 (female, male; nest; Brazil: Lower Japurá); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 165, 166; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 473, fig. 2 (syn.: Polybia cameranii Zavattari; female, male, nest; Suriname; Brazil; Panama); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 146. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Panama).

Protopolybia picteti var. bella; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 118; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 266 (list). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá).

Distr.: Panama; Suriname; Peru: Huánuco, Junín; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas; Bolivia.

 

biguttata Bequaert

Protopolybia picteti var. (or subsp.) biguttata Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 116 (key), 119, female - gPeru: El Campamiento, Col. Pereneh (Ithaca).

Protopolybia biguttata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 148.

Distr.: Peru: Junín, Madre de Dios.

 

bituberculata Silveira and Carpenter

Protopolybia sedula var. exigua; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 [partim].

Protopolybia bituberculata Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 48, figs. 1A, 2A, 3, female, male, nest - gBrazil: Pará, Vigia, Campo do Palhah (holotype female Belém); also from Amazonas and Maranhão; and Peru; Ecuador.

Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Maranhão Pará.

 

cameranii (Zavattari)

Polybia Cameranii Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10, female - [Panama] gPunta de Sabanah (Torino).

Protopolybia picteti var. cameranii; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 120.

Protopolybia cameranii; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 145.

Distr.: Panama.

 

chanchamayensis Bequaert

Protopolybia gchanchamayensis Bequaert nov. spec.h Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73.  Nomen nudum.

Protopolybia chanchamayensis Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 100 (key), 101, fig. 1A-D, female - gPeru: San Ramon, Valle Chanchamayo, near the confluence of the Rio Perene and the Rio Chanchamayo, 800 m.h (Cambridge); also from Hacienda San Juan, Col. Perene. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 140, fig. 72. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179 (characters).

Distr.: Peru: Junín.

 

chartergoides boshelli (Bequaert)

Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. boshelli Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104, female - gEl Retiro near Restrepo, Int. Meta, Colombiah (holotype Cambridge); also from elsewhere in Meta, and Antioquia.

Pseudochartergus chartergoides boshelli; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 155 (key), 157.

Protopolybia chartergoides boshelli; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Antioquia, Meta; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba.

 

chartergoides chartergoides (Gribodo)

Nectarina chartergoides Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 253, female - [French Guiana] gCaiennah (Genova). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 86 (cat.). - Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 11; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará: 663 (not a Nectarina).

Charterginus cinctellus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 460 - gBrazil ... Chapadah (lectotype female Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 117, 234, pl. 6 fig. 11. - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222 (designation of lectotype).

Chartergus cinctellus; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 337 (Brazil). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 181 (critellus [!]).

Chartergus chartergoides; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325.

Pseudochartergus chartergoides; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 466 (female, male, nest; key; syns.: Charterginus cinctellus Fox, Chartergus acutiscutis Cameron, Chartergus panamensis Zavattari; Belize; Panama; Peru; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (typical chartergoides). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 182-183 (nest).

Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (syns.: acutiscutis Cameron, panamensis Zavattari) [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (probable syn.: gCharterginush pallidibalteatus Cameron).

Protopolybia chartergoides chartergoides; Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Pseudochartergus chartergoides chartergoides morph chartergoides; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 156.

Pseudochartergus chartergoides chartergoides morph cinctellus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 155 (key), 156. - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list).

Protopolybia chartergoides; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas*, Caquetá, Magdalena, Meta, Putumayo, Tolima*, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Zulia*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas*, Manabi, Napo, Tungurahua; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, São Paulo; Bolivia: La Paz.

 

chartergoides isthmensis (Richards)

Pseudochartergus chartergoides isthmensis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 155 (key), 157, female - gPANAMA: Sabanash (Washington); also from Tocumen; and Costa Rica.

Protopolybia chartergoides; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology).

Distr.: Belize; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Tolima*.

 

duckei (du Buysson)

Charterginus duckei du Buysson, 1905, Bull. Soc. Entomol. France 1905: 126, female - gBrésil, Bahiah (? Wien). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (syn. of Protopolybia emortualis (de Saussure)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (syn. of emortualis). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (note on type).

Protopolybia emortualis var. duckei; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 116, fig. 2 (gscarcely worthy of a nameh; Guyana); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (separation from typical form doubtful). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 22 (syn.: Charterginus rufo-ornatus Cameron; nest; Guyana).

Protopolybia duckei; Carpenter et al., 2001, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 109: 180 (valid species; French Guiana).

Distr.: French Guiana; Brazil: Bahia.

 

duckeianus (Richards)

Pseudochartergus duckeianus Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 155, fig. 73, female - gBRAZIL: AP, Oiapoque (Oyapock)h (London). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-181, 184 (characters).

Distr.: Suriname; Brazil: Amapá.

 

emortualis (de Saussure)

Chartergus emortualis de Saussure, 1855, Rev. Mag. Zool. 7: 374 - gBrésil (Santarem, vallée des Amazones)h (holotype female London). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 135. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 168; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 326.

Chartergus rufiventris Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 335, female - [Brazil:] gBelem do Paráh (lectotype Paris); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (syn. of Protopolybia emortualis (de Saussure)).. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list).

Protopolybia rufiventris; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (nest), 673 (male; Brazil); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: pl. 2 fig. 2a-b.

Charterginus rufo-ornatus Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 220, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London). - Richards, 1951, in Richards and Richards, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 22 (syn. of Protopolybia emortualis var. duckei); 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (rufoornatus; designation of lectotype). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types).

Protopolybia emortualis; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 165 (key), 166, pl. 2 fig. 2a-b (syn.: Chartergus rufiventris Ducke; nest; Peru; Brazil; Suriname); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 468 (key), 470, fig. 1 (syn.: Charterginus duckei du Buysson; female, male, nest; ethology); 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 309; 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324. - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 115 (typical emortualis; Suriname); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 265 (key), 270 (typical emortualis). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 144. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-181, 184 (characters). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Meta, Tolima, Santander del Sur, Cundinamarca, Magdalena; list). - Carpenter et al., 2001, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 109: 179 (Brazil; French Guiana), 180 (syn.: rufoornatus).

Protopolybia laboriosa; Bodkin, 1918, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1917: 297-321.  Misidentification.

Protopolybia rufo-ornata; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 131 (unrecognized species; possibly variant of P. picteti); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (possibly color form of P. picteti).

Distr.: Colombia: Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Santander del Sur, Tolima; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Peru: Huánuco, Loreto; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Pará.

 

exigua binominata (Schulz)

Polybia minutissima de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 170, female (in division Alpha) - gL'Amérique méridionale. Quixosh [Ecuador] (? Torino) [junior secondary homonym of Protopolybia minutissima (Spinola, 1851)]. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 164; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.).

Polybia binominata Schulz, 1906, Spolia Hym.: 233.  Replacement name for P. minutissima de Saussure, 1854.

Protopolybia sedula; Rau, 1933, Jungle Bees Wasps Barro Col. Is.: 87, figs. 41-42.  Misidentification.

Protopolybia sedula var. exigua; Brèthes, 1920, An. Soc. Cient. Argent. 89: 51.  Misidentification.

Protopolybia minutissima var. binominata; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 107 (nest) [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 267.

Protopolybia exigua binominata; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 143. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: figs. 1B, 2B.

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Santander, Vaupés; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana*; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz, Pando.

 

exigua exigua (de Saussure)

Polybia exigua de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 173, pl. XXII fig. 1, female (in division Alpha) - gLe Brésil. Capitainerie de Goyazh (Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 125. - Rudow, 1901, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 46: 341 (nest). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

? Polybia sedula; Möbius, 1856, Abhand. Naturw. Vereins Hamburg 3: 126; 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 6, 34 (key), pl. II (nest; Brazil; Venezuela: Puerto Cabello); 1856, Arch. Naturgesch. 22: 330 (key), fig. 4. - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 124. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 451 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso). - Rudow, 1898, Illus. Zeitschr. Entomol. 3: 25 (nest); 1901, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 46: 341 (nest). - Brèthes, 1903, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 9: 28. - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 342 (key), 349 (in subgenus Polybia; female; nest; Brazil: Pará). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Panama). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 218 (note on material seen by Fox).  Misidentification.

Polybia diligens Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 132, female - gBrazil (Santarem)h (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

Polybia palmarum Blanchard, 1868, Métamorph. Mouers Instincts Ins.: 414 fig., 415, female - gcommune au Guatémalah (Paris). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 (syn. of sedula var. exigua). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 110 (probably syn. of pumila var. acutiscutis (Cameron)). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 53 (syn. of P. exigua de Saussure). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types).

Polybia minutissima sedula; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 179, 247, pl. 6 fig. 9 (nest; Brazil: São Paulo, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Amazonas; Peru; Suriname) [partim].

Protopolybia sedula; Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (key), 167; 1907, Rev. Entomol., Caen 26: 94 (Brazil); 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil); 1910, Rev. Entomol., Caen 28: 118 (var.: exigua Saussure); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (key), 474, fig. 3 (syns.: P. exigua de Saussure, P. pumila de Saussure, P. palmarum Blanchard, P. diligens Smith, P. punctulata Ducke; female, male, nest; Central America; Brazil; Paraguay; French Guiana) [partim]; 1914, Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 36: 309-311, figs. B-D (nest); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324 (many additional localities in Brazil; Paraguay; Peru; French Guiana). - Bertoni, 1918, An. Cient. Parag. (2) 3: 204 (Paraguay). - da Fonseca, 1927, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 171 (nest).  Misidentification.

Protopolybia exigua; Ducke, 1908, Rev. Entomol., Caen 27: 85 (Brazil). - Machado and Rodrigues, 1975, Rev. Agric., Piracicaba 50: 95-102 (caste polymorphism). - ? Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 33, 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179 (characters). - Gastreich et al., 1993, Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 5 (4): 529-539 (genetics). - Queller et al., 1993, Nature 365: 639-641 (genetics). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Strassmann et al., 1998, Mol. Ecol. 7:709-718 (ethology). - Garcete-Barrett, 2002 (2001), Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. 13: 48 (Paraguay).

Protopolybia sedula var. exigua; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 (syn.: diligens Smith); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324 (Brazil).

Polybia nana Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 208 (key), 209, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (lectotype London) [junior primary homonym of Polybia nana de Saussure, 1863]. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 142 (designation of lectotype).

Protopolybia minutissima var. sedula; Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Trujillo). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 109; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 267; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela localities).  Misidentification.

Protopolybia minutissima var. exigua; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 108 (Colombia; Venezuela; Trinidad; Brazil; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 267.

Protopolybia nana; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 133 (unrecognized species); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (unrecognized).

Protopolybia exigua exigua; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 142. - Simões and Zucchi, 1980, Naturalia 5: 79-87 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Brazil: Goiás). - Simões et al., 1996, Sociobiol. 28 (1): 121-129 (ethology; parasitism by Megaselia (Phoridae)).

Distr.: Guatemala; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Amazonas*, Arauca, Meta; Venezuela: Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, D. F.*, Falcón*, Monagas, Trujillo, Zulia; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Esmereldas, Napo; Peru: Loreto, Madre de Dios; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Santa Cruz; Paraguay: Concepción.

 

fuscatus (Fox)

Charterginus fuscatus Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 459, female - gBrazil ... Mararuh (Pittsburgh). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.).

Chartergus fuscatus; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 329 (key), 338 (Brazil).

Pseudochartergus fuscatus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 466 (female; key; Brazil; Peru). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 105 (Colombia: Boyacá; Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 155. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 183 (nest).

Protopolybia fuscatus; Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 222. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Distr.: Colombia: Boyacá, Putumayo, Valle; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz.

 

holoxantha (Ducke)

Polybia holoxantha Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 342 (key), 349, female, nest - [Brazil:] gOyapoch (lectotype London). - Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 207 (key), 209 (Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types).

Protopolybia holoxantha; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 675 (Brazil), pl. 3 fig. 11 (nest); 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166, 168 (French Guiana); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 477 (female, male, nest; French Guiana; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 100 (key), 104 (Guyana), fig. 1E-G; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 265 (key), 266 (list). - Araujo, 1960, Studia Entomol. (N. S.) 3: 252 (Brazil: Amapá). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 140. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Guyana). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-180 (characters).

Distr.: Guyana; French Guiana; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas.

 

iheringi Ducke

Polybia pumila; R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 176, 247 [partim].

Protopolybia Iheringi Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 474, female, nest - gPérou, oriental subandin, Marcapatah (lectotype São Paulo). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 148 (iheringi; designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (ihering [!]; list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (iheringi; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types).

Distr.: Peru: Cuzco.

 

laboriosa (de Saussure)

Polybia laboriosa de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 171, female (in division Alpha) - gLe Mexiqueh (Torino?). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

Protopolybia laboriosa; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 130 (unrecognized species). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico.

 

minutissima (Spinola)

Polistes minutissima Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 62, female - [Brazil:] gParah (? Torino). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 132; 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 70 (cat.).

Rhopalidia minutissima; Spinola, 1854, in Osculati, Esplorazione lungo il Napo ed Amazzoni: 201. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 164.

Polybia minutissima; Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 124. - R. von Ihering, 1904, Rev. Mus. Paul. 6: 178 (Brazil: Espírito Santo, São Paulo). - Zavattari, 1906, Bol. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Torino 21 (529): 10 (Panama).

Protopolybia minutissima; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 675 (Brazil: Teffé); 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (key), 476 (nest; Ecuador; Panama; French Guiana; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 325. - da Fonseca, 1926, Rev. Mus. Paul. 14: 171 (nest). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (typical minutissima; earlier references probably based on more than one color form of this species).; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 265 (key), 267 (typical minutissima). - Richards and Richards, 1951, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 102: 19. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 141. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-180 (characters). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Santander del Sur; list).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Santander del Sur; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Minas Gerais; Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia: Cochabamba, Pando.

 

nitida (Ducke)

Chartergus nitidus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325, 327 (key), 338, female - [Brazil:] gObidosh (lectotype London); also from Oyapoc. - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 118 (syn. of Protopolybia picteti var. bella (R. von Ihering)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 145 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 17 (notes on types).

Protopolybia nitida; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 674; 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 165; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 473 (female; Brazil); 1918, Rev. Mus. Paul. 10: 324 (Peru). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 145. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).

Distr.: Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco; French Guiana*; Brazil: Amapá, Pará.

 

pallidibalteatus (Cameron)

Charterginus pallidibalteatus Cameron, 1912, Timehri (3) 2: 219, female - locality not stated [Guyana] (London).

Chartergus pallidilineatus [!]; Bodkin, 1918, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1917: 297-321.

Pseudochartergus pallidibalteatus; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 157. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 182 (nest).

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana.

 

panamensis (Zavattari)

Chartergus panamensis Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 4, female - [Panama] gColonh (Torino). - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (syn. of Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus (Fox)).

Chartergus acutiscutis Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183, female - gBelizeh (London) [secondary junior homonym of Polybia acutiscutis Cameron, 1906]. - Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 (syn. of Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus (Fox)).

Pseudochartergus chartergoides var. cinctellus; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 104 [partim]; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264 (specimens from Belize, Honduras, Panama, Colombia, are Pseudochartergus panamensis (Zavattari)).

Pseudochartergus panamensis; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 264. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 154 (key), 157. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 183 (nest).

Protopolybia panamensis; Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Panama).

Distr.: Belize; Guatemala; Honduras; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander.

 

perfulvula Bequaert

Protopolybia picteti var. (or subsp.) perfulvula Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 121, female - gPanama: Rio Agua Salud, C. Z.h (Cambridge); also from Barro Colorado Island; and Costa Rica.

Protopolybia perfulvula; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 147. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Atlantico, Valle.

 

picteti fulvotincta (Cameron)

Polybia fulvotincta Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 184, female (in subgenus Clypearia) - gBelizeh (lectotype London). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 147 (designation of lectotype).

Protopolybia fulvotincta; Ducke, 1908, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 696 (female, male); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 472 (female, male; Belize). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).

Protopolybia picteti var. fulvotincta; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 120.

Protopolybia picteti var. iheringi; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 116 (key), 120 (Costa Rica).  Misidentification.

Protopolybia picteti fulvotincta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 147.

Protopolybia picteti; West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Belize; Costa Rica.

 

picteti picteti (de Saussure)

Polybia picteti de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 168, pl. XXI fig. 2, female (in division Alpha) - gLébao [Libano]. Colombieh (Paris). - Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 124. - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165. - Rudow, 1901, Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr. 46: 341 (nest from Venezuela). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.).

Protopolybia picteti; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 468 (key), 471 (female, nest; Colombia). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (typical picteti; male; Panama; Colombia); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (record by Rudow unreliable).

Protopolybia picteti picteti; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 147. - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list).

Distr.: Panama; Colombia: Magdalena, Tolima; Venezuela: D. F.

 

rotundata Ducke

Polybia pumila; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim].

Protopolybia rotundata Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 469 (key), 472, female - gLa Mana, Guyane françaiseh (lectotype Paris). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 145 (designation of lectotype). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types).

Protopolybia pumila var. rotundata; Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 123 (key), 126; 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 270 (list).

Distr.: French Guiana; Brazil: Mato Grosso.

 

rubrithorax Bequaert

Protopolybia grubrithorax Bequaert nov. spec.h Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73.  Nomen nudum.

Protopolybia minutissima var. (or subsp.) rubrithorax Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 106 (key), 110, fig. 1L-N, female, nest - gPeru: Tingo Maria, Rio Huallaga, 700 m.h (holotype female Cambridge).

Protopolybia rubrithorax; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 138 (key), 142. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179 (characters).

Distr.: Peru: Huánuco.

 

rugulosa Ducke

Protopolybia minutissima; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 697, pl. 3 fig. 10.

Protopolybia rugulosa Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (key), 167, female - [Brazil:] gTefféh (lectotype London); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 476 (syn. of P. laboriosa (de Saussure)). - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 130. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 143 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (Colombia: Amazonas; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types).

? Protopolybia laboriosa; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 470 (key), 476 (female, nest; Mexico; Brazil). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).  Misidentification.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas; Suriname; French Guiana; Brazil: Amazonas.

 

scutellaris Bequaert

Protopolybia scutellaris Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 100 (key), 111, fig. 1H-K, female - gCosta Rica: Suretka, Province Limonh (Ithaca). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 137 (key), 141, fig. 71 (nest; Panama; Colombia). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 179-180 (characters), 182 (nest). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama*; Colombia: Nariño, Valle.

 

sedula (de Saussure)

Polybia sedula de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 169, pl. XXI figs. 3-6, female (in division Alpha) - [Brazil:] gBahiah (Paris, Genève). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on types).

Polybia pumila de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 239, female (in division Alpha) - gBrésilh (Frankfurt). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165. - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 449 [partim] (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 150 (designation of lectotype; syn. of Protopolybia sedula (de Saussure)). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 215 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (notes on type; syn. confirmed).

Protopolybia pumila; Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 18. - Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 123 (typical pumila; male; nest; Colombia; Venezuela; Guyana; Suriname; Brazil; Peru; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 266 (key), 270 (typical pumila); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela: D. F.). - Machado and Rodrigues, 1975, Rev. Agric., Piracicaba 50: 95-102 (caste polymorphism). - Machado, 1977, Rev. Brasil. Biol. 37: 771-784 (ethology). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).

Protopolybia punctulata Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 166 (key), 167, female - gIquitos (Perú amazonico) e Barbacena (Minas Geraes) ... La Mana (Guyana franceza) ... de diversas localidades do Estado de São Pauloh (Bern). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 11 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 142 (syn. of exigua de Saussure). - Obrecht and Huber, 1993, Jahrb. Naturhist. Mus. Bern 11: 178 (syntype in Bern corresponds to sedula de Saussure). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 1, 18 (notes on types; syn. of sedula de Saussure).

Protopolybia sedula; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 474 [partim]. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 144 (syn.: P. pumila de Saussure). - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 183 (nest). - Machado, 1982, in Jaisson, Soc. Ins. Tropics 1: 189-192 (ethology). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 47 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Peru). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 32, fig.

Protopolybia sedula morph sedula; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (key), 150.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Magdalena, Putumayo; Venezuela: D. F.; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Bolivia: Beni, La Paz; Paraguay: Asunción, Alto Paraná; Argentina: Misiones.

 

steinbachi Richards

Protopolybia steinbachi Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 148, female - gBOLIVIAh (London).

Distr.: Bolivia.

 

weyrauchi Bequaert

Protopolybia gweyrauchi Bequaert nov. spec.h Weyrauch, 1943, Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado 7: 73.  Nomen nudum.

Protopolybia weyrauchi Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 101 (key), 126, fig. 3A-G, female, male, nest - gPeru: San Ramon, Valle Chanchamayo, 800 m.h (holotype female Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 140 (key), 149. - Carpenter and Wenzel, 1990 (1989), Psyche 96: 180 (characters), 183 (nest). - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49, fig. 2C (male; Peru).

Distr.: Peru: Junín.

 

wheeleri Bequaert

Protopolybia picteti var. (or subsp.) wheeleri Bequaert, 1944, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 15: 117 (key), 121, fig. 3H-N, female, male, nest - gPanama: Frijoles, C. Z.h (holotype female Cambridge).

Protopolybia wheeleri; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 139 (key), 146. - Silveira and Carpenter, 1996 (1995), J. New York Entomol. Soc. 103: 49 (male; Panama).

Distr.: Nicaragua; Panama; Colombia*.

 

 

Genus Pseudopolybia de Saussure

 

Pseudopolybia de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 237, division of genus Polybia Lepeletier, 1836.

Type species: Polybia vespiceps de Saussure, 1863, by monotypy.

Xanthocaba Meade Waldo, 1914, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 14: 406, in synonymy of Parachartergus vespiceps var. testacea Ducke.  Unavailable under Article 11.6 of the Code.

 

compressa (de Saussure)

Chartergus compressus de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 217 (key), 223, pl. XXXI fig. 6, male - gLes Amazonesh (London). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325. - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 18 (note on type).

Chartergus luctuosus Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 135, female - gBrazil (Santarem)h (London). - Gribodo, 1892 (1891), Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 23: 257 (Venezuela: Mérida). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 85 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 325.

Chartergus laticinctus Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 323, 326 (key), 330, female - [Brazil:] gBelem do Paráh (lectotype Paris). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 4 (Ecuador). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 228 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 9 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on lectotype; syn. of compressa (de Saussure)).

Parachartergus luctuosus; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 662 (nest).

Parachartergus compressus; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 527 (key), 530, fig. 15 (syns.: C. luctuosus Smith, C. laticinctus Ducke; female, male, nest; Ecuador; Brazil).

Pseudopolybia compressa; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113 (typical form); Martorell and Salas, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 251 (Venezuela: Aragua). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (list). - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 586 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 8 (male genitalia). - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Suriname; Trinidad; Peru; Ecuador; Panama), table 1 (characters), figs. 2A1, 2B1, 2C1, 2D1.

Pseudopolybia compressa var. laticincta; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113 (Colombia; Brazil); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela: Mérida).

Pseudopolybia compressa var. luctuosa; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 113 (Panama; Peru; Bolivia); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 135 (Venezuela localities).

Pseudopolybia compressa morph compressa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 227.

Pseudopolybia compressa morph luctuosa; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 227.

Pseudopolybia compressa morph laticincta; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 228.

Parachartergus compressus; Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 10 (list).

Distr.: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Cauca; Venezuela: Aragua, Mérida; Trinidad; Suriname; French Guiana*; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín; Madre de Dios; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Espirito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rio de Janeiro; Bolivia: Beni.

 

difficilis (Ducke)

Parachartergus difficilis Ducke, 1905, Rev. Entomol., Caen 24: 14, female - [Brazil:] gdans le grand bois de la rive brésilienne du fleuve Oyapoch (Paris); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 527 (key), 528, fig. 13 (female, male, nest; Brazil). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 227 (designation of holotype as glectotypeh). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on type). - Carpenter and Mateus, 2004, Rev. Bras. Entomol. 48 (3): fig. 9 (male genitalia).

Pseudopolybia difficilis; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 112 (Guayana; Peru; Bolivia); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 299. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (key), 227, fig. 92. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Mejdalani and Felix, 1997, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99 (1):159 (mimicry by Lissocarta beckeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)). - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Peru), table 1 (characters), fig. 3B1.

Distr.: Guyana; Peru; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia; Bolivia.

 

langi Bequaert

Pseudopolybia langi Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 299, fig. 2, female - gBRITISH GUIANA: Kamakusah (Cambridge). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 224 (key), 230. - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Guyana), table 1 (characters), figs. 2C2, 3A1.

Distr.: Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas.

 

vespiceps (de Saussure)

Polybia vespiceps de Saussure, 1863, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 17: 237, pl. 2 fig. 27, female - gBrésilh (Frankfurt). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 450 (Brazil: Mato Grosso). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 217 (note on material seen by Fox). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (note on type).

Chartergus vespiceps; Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 323, 326 (key), 329 (Brazil).

Parachartergus vespiceps; Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 6 (Brazil); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 527 (key), 530, fig. 14 (typical vespiceps; male; Brazil).

Parachartergus vespiceps var. testacea Ducke, 1907, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 5: 160 - gSurinameh (lectotype female São Paulo); also from French Guiana; Brazil; 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 530 (testaceus; French Guiana; Suriname; Brazil; ? Uruguay). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225 (designation of lectotype). - Nascimento and Overal, 1979, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.) 95: 10 (list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 360 (Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; list). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on types; syn. of vespiceps (de Saussure)).

Pseudopolybia vespiceps; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 112 (typical vespiceps); 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 299. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 31 (Brazil), 36 (distr.), 38; 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Andena et al., 2007, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3586: 1 (phylogenetic relationships), 10 (key), 11 (Brazil; Peru), table 1 (characters), figs. 2A2, 2B2, 2D2, 3A2, 3B2, 4.

Pseudopolybia vespiceps var. testacea; Bequaert, 1938, Rev. Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 112 (syn.: Xanthocaba nigrolineata Meade-Waldo; Brazil).

Pseudopolybia vespiceps morph vespiceps; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 38 (Brazil).

Pseudopolybia vespiceps morph testacea; Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 225. - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 38 (Brazil).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá; Venezuela: Amazonas*; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, D. F., Espirito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; ? Uruguay.

 

 

Genus Synoeca de Saussure

 

Synoeca de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2) 10: 550, 551, genus (6 species).

Type species: Vespa surinama Linnaeus, 1767, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Entomol. 34: 165.

Synaeca Brèthes, 1906, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 13: 313.  Incorrect spelling of Synoeca de Saussure.

 

chalibea de Saussure

Synoeca chalibea de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 556, female - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (? Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 161, pl. XVIII fig. 5 (chalybea [!]). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (chalybea; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340 (chalybea [!]; Brazil). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274 (key), 276 (chalybea; typical form). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 181, fig. 80 (syn.: S. irina var. splendens). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 152 (key), 153 (Venezuela), fig. 2. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 587 (Costa Rica).

Synoeca irina var. splendens du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 358, female - gPérou: Valcanota; Bolivie: Songoh (Budapest). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 487. - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 181 (syn. of S. chalibea de Saussure).

Synoeca irina var. chalybea; Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 487 (Colombia).

Synoeca chalybea var. splendens; Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 276 (distinction doubtful).

Distr.: Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Venezuela: Amazonas; Guyana; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco; Brazil: Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso; Bolivia: Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz.

 

cyanea (Fabricius)

Vespa cyanea Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 372 - gBrasiliah (London); 1781, Spec. Ins.: 1: 469; 1787, Mant. Ins.: 293. - Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 227. - Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 674. - Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 282. - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)).

Polistes cyanea; Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279. - Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, Encyc. Méthod. 10: 172.

Epipone [!] cyanea; Haliday, 1836, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 322 (Brazil: São Paulo; Colombia).

Synoeca cyanea; de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 553, pl 11 fig. 2 (French Guiana; Suriname; Brazil); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 159. - Möbius, 1856, Nester Gesell. Wespen: 5, 35 (key), pl. I (nest; Brazil). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (cat.). - Schrottky, 1904, Allg. Zeitschr. Entomol. 9: 345 (nest; Paraguay). - Ducke, 1906, Rev. Entomol., Caen 25: 7 (Brazil). - Schremmer, 1973, in Wolf, Encyc. Cinematograph. (film). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 180. - Schremmer, 1986, Öko-L 8 (nest). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 214 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Garcete-Barrett, 1999, Avispas Soc. Parag.: 8 (mimics), 31, fig. (Paraguay).

Synoeca azurea de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 554, female - gLe Brésil, Bahiah (Paris); also from Mexico; 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 160. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 542 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 180 (invalid designation of lectotype; syn. of cyanea (Fabricius)). - Carpenter, 1999, Am. Mus. Novitat. 3259: 19 (notes on types).

Synoeca ultramarina de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 554, pl 11 fig. 1, male, female  - gSainte-Catharine au Brésilh (lectotype female Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 160. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 275 (syn. of Synoeca surinama, typical form). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 180 (designation of lectotype).

Synoeca violacea de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 555, female - gLe Brésil. Rapporté de Sainte-Catharineh (Paris); 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 161. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (syn. of S. surinama (Linnaeus)).

Distr.: Brazil: Bahia, D. F., Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo; Paraguay: Cordillera, Paraguarí, San Pedro, Canindeyú, Concepción, Alto Paraná, Guairá; Argentina: Misiones.

 

septentrionalis Richards

Synoeca cyanea; Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 9 (Ecuador). - Cameron, 1907, Invert. Pacif. 1: 183 (Belize).

Synoeca surinama var. cyanea; du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 353 (northern Venezuela). - Martorell, 1939, J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 23: 230 (Venezuela: Aragua, D. F.). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 275; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela localities).

Synoeca sp.; Skutch, 1959, Anim. King. 57: 8-13 (predation by Daptrius americanus; Costa Rica).

Synoeca septentrionalis West-Eberhard, 1975, Cespedesia 4 (16): 255.  Nomen nudum.

Synoeca surinamensis [!]; Windsor, 1976, Biotropica 8: 112 (Costa Rica). - Maes, 1988, Rev. Nicarag. Entomol. 5: 18, 80, 83, 89 (surinama; Nicaragua) [misidentification].

Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 180, female, male - gMEXICO: Guerrero, Tepetlapa, 3000 ft (914 m)h (holotype female London); also from Chiapas, Colima, D. F., Guanajuato, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; and Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia; Venezuela; Ecuador; Peru. - Starr, 1988, Biotropica 20: 171 (nesting associations). - Starr and Bozzoli, 1990, in Overal, Ethnobiol., Part B, Ethnozool.: 191 (ethnobiology in Costa Rica). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 153 (key), 154 (Venezuela), 158 (prey records), figs. 1, 3. - West-Eberhard et al., 1995, Hym. Costa Rica: 587 (Costa Rica). - O'Donnell, 1995, Biotropica 27: 136 (morphology). - Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

Distr.: Mexico: Chiapas, Colima, D. F., Guanajuato, Guerrero, Morelos, Nayarit*, Oaxaca, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán; Belize; Guatemala; El Salvador; Honduras; Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia: Antioquia, Arauca, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Tolima, Valle; Venezuela: Aragua, Barinas, Carabobo, Cojedes, D. F., Falcon, Lara, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy; Ecuador: El Oro, Esmereldas, Guayas, Manabi, Pichincha; Peru: Tumbes.

 

surinama (Linnaeus)

Vespa surinama Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat., Ed. 12: 952 - gSurinamih (type depository unknown); 1767, Syst. Nat., ed. 12: 952. - Christ, 1791, Naturgesch. Ins.: 215. - Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 676.

Vespa nigricornis Olivier, 1792, Encyc. Méthod. 6 (2): 675 - [French Guiana] gCayenneh (type lost).

Polistes coerulea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 279 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn).

Synoeca coerulea; de Saussure, 1852, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France (2) 10: 552 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, 1792, ? V. surinama).

Synoeca surinama; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 158 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, P. coerulea Fabricius; French Guiana). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Brazil: Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 81 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, P. coerulea Fabricius; cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340, pl. 2 fig. 10 (male; Brazil). - Zavattari, 1906, Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Univ. Torino 21 (529): 10 (surimana [!]; Ecuador). - du Buysson, 1906, Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 353 (Venezuela: Apure). - Ducke, 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486, fig. 7 (syns.: V. nigricornis Olivier, P. coeruleus Fabricius, V. cyanea Fabricius, S. violacea de Saussure, S. ultramarina de Saussure; female, male; Brazil). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1939, Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 14: 105 (surinamensis [!]; mimicry). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274, 275 (typical form; Mexico); 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 131 (Venezuela). - Vesey-Fitzgerald, 1956, Entomol. Mon. Mag. (4) 17: 165 (surinamensis [!]; Guyana). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179, fig. 79. - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list). - Castellon, 1980, Acta Amazon. 10: 679-690 (population dynamics); 1980, Acta Amazon. 10: 883-896 (nest); 1981, Acta Amazon. 11: 377-382 (ethology); 1982, Acta Amazon. 12: 665-666 (mating behavior). - Raw, 1988, Entomologist 107: 105 (nest site), 106 (role in agriculture), 107 (prey: Spodoptera probably frugiperda, Alabama argillacea (Hueb.)). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (Brazil), 36 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 153 (key), 157 (Venezuela), 158 (morphometric comparison with septentrionalis). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 160 (male genitalia).

Synoeca azurea; Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Brazil: Mato Grosso).  Misidentification.

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Valle, Vaupés; Venezuela: Amazonas, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Guárico*, Miranda, Sucre; Trinidad; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza*, Zamora-Chinchipe*; Peru: Huánuco, Junín, Loreto; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, D. F., Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia: Beni, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz.

 

virginea (Fabricius)

Polistes virginea Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: 277 - gAmerica meridionalih (Kobenhavn).

Polistes irina Spinola, 1851, preprint of Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 13: 59, female - [Brazil:] gParah (Torino).

Synoeca testacea de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2: 162, female - [Brazil:] gLe Parah (London). - Fox, 1898, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.: 446 (Brazil: Amazonas). - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 82 (cat.). - Ducke, 1904, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 340 (Brazil). - Carpenter and van der Vecht, 1991, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 60 (3): 213 (note on material seen by Fox).

Polybia irina; de Saussure, 1854, Ét. Fam. Vesp. 2.: 212, species dubiae. - Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 77 (cat.).

Synoeca irina; Ducke, 1905, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, Pará 4: 660 (nest); 1910, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 8: 486 (key), 487 (syns.: S. testacea de Saussure, S. chalybea; female, male, nest; Brazil). - Overal, 1978, Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi (N. S.), Zool. 94: 11 (list).

Synoeca virginea; Schulz, 1912, Berl. Entomol. Zeitschr. 57: 84 (syns.: P. irina Spinola, S. testacea de Saussure). - Bequaert, 1944, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 274 (key), 275; 1949 (1948), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 7: 132 (Venezuela: Bolívar). - Hamilton, 1972, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 3: 225 (ethology). - Richards, 1978, Soc. Wasps Am.: 179 (key), 182. - Overal, 1982, J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 17: 1-4 (ethology). - Raw, 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 36 (Brazil), 37 (distr.); 1989, Maracá Rainfor. Proj., Invert. Limnol., Prelim. Rep.: 41, 42 (habitat preference). - Almeida and Castro, 1991, Acta Biol. Par., Curitiba 20: 48 (coll. list). - Sarmiento, 1994, Rev. Biol. Trop. 42 (1/2): 359 (list). - Garcia and Gaiani, 1996 (1994), Bol. Entomol. Venez. 9 (2): 153 (key; Venezuela). - Carpenter et al., 1996, J. Hym. Res. 5: 162 (nest). - Cooper, 2000, Entomol. Mon. Mag. 136: 196 (nest association with Azteca; Agelaia pallidiventris; Polybia rejecta, P. singularis, Chartergus chartarius, and Icteridae).

Distr.: Colombia: Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Putumayo, Vaupés; Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolívar; Guyana; Suriname; Ecuador: Napo, Pastaza*; Peru: Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto*, Madre de Dios, San Martin; Brazil: Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Piaui, Rondônia, Roraima; Bolivia.

 

 

Fossil Species (assignment dubious)

 

Polybia ? anglica Cockerell, 1921, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 7: 20, fig. 23.

Oligocene of Great Britain (Isle of Wight).

 

Polybia oblita Cockerell, 1921, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 8: 545, fig. 5.

Oligocene of Great Britain (Isle of Wight).

 

Unrecognized Species

 

Polybia plebeja de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 21, female, male - gMexicoh (? Wien). - Dalla Torre, 1894, Cat. Hym. 9: 165 (cat.); 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 78 (cat.). - Zikán, 1949, Bol. Parq. Nac. Itatiaia 1: 231.

Mischocyttarus plebeja; Rodríguez-Palafox, 1996, in Llorente-Bousquets et al., Biodiv. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. México: 482 (list).

 

 

* indicates new record.

 

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